Problem 1SE: Choose one of the answers given. The null hypothesis is always a statement about a (sample... Problem 2SE: Choose one of the answers in each case. In statistical inference, measurements are made on a ... Problem 3SE: Vegetarians (Example 1) In 2016 a Harris poll estimated that 3.3 of American adults are vegetarian.... Problem 4SE: Embedded Tutors A college chemistry instructor thinks the use of embedded tutors (tutors who work... Problem 5SE: Teen Drivers According to a 2015 University of Michigan poll, 71.5 of high school seniors in the... Problem 6SE: Water A friend is tested to see whether he can tell bottled water from tap water. There are 30... Problem 7SE Problem 8SE: Law School Grad Employment The National Association for Law Placement estimated that 86.7 of law... Problem 9SE: Soda Orders (Example 2) A manager at a casual dining restaurant noted that 15 of customers ordered... Problem 10SE: Mixed Nuts The label on a can of mixed nuts says that the mixture contains 40 peanuts. After opening... Problem 11SE: Flu Vaccine (Example 3) An immunologist is testing the hypothesis that the current flu vaccine is... Problem 12SE: Law School Grad Employment An economist is testing the hypothesis that the employment rate for law... Problem 13SE Problem 14SE: Hybrid Car Sales According to Green Car Reports, 4.4 of cars sold in California in 2017 were hybrid... Problem 15SE: Vegetarians (Example 4) In 2016 the Harris poll estimated that 3.3 of American adults are... Problem 16SE: Embedded Tutors A college chemistry instructor thinks the use of embedded tutors will improve the... Problem 17SE: Coke versus Pepsi (Example 5) Suppose you are testing someone to see whether she or he can tell Coke... Problem 18SE: St. Louis Jury Pool St. Louis County is 24 African American. Suppose you are looking at jury pools,... Problem 19SE: Vegetarians (Example 6) In problem 8.15 the nutritionist was interested in knowing if the rate of... Problem 20SE: Embedded Tutors In problem 8.16, a college chemistry instructor thinks the use of embedded tutors... Problem 21SE: Hospital Readmission A hospital readmission is an episode when a patient who has been discharged... Problem 22SE: Guessing A 20-question multiple choice quiz has five choices for each question. Suppose that a... Problem 23SE: Dreaming (Example 7) A 2003 study of dreaming published in the journal Perceptual and Motor Skills... Problem 24SE: Age Discrimination About 30 of the population in Silicon Valley, a region in California, are between... Problem 25SE: Self-Driving Cars (Example 8) In a Northeastern University/Gallup poll of 461 young Americans aged... Problem 26SE: Diabetes According to a Gallup poll, 11.55 of American adults have diabetes. Suppose a researcher... Problem 27SE: Coke versus Pepsi A taste test is done to see whether a person can tell Coke from Pepsi. In each... Problem 28SE: Seat Belts Suppose we are testing people to see whether the rate of use of seat belts has changed... Problem 29SE: Working Out (Example 9) According to a 2018 survey by Timex reported in Shape magazine, 73 of... Problem 30SE: Vacations According to a 2017 AAA survey, 35 of Americans planned to take a family vacation (a... Problem 31SE: Working Out (Example 10) According to a 2018 survey by Timex reported in Shape magazine, 73 of... Problem 32SE: Vacations According to a 2017 AAA survey, 35 of Americans planned to take a family vacation (a... Problem 33SE: p-Values For each graph, indicate whether the shaded area could represent a p-value. Explain why or... Problem 34SE: p-Values For each graph, state whether the shaded area could represent a p-value. Explain why or why... Problem 35SE: News on Facebook A 2018 Gallup poll of 3635 randomly selected Facebook users found that 2472 get... Problem 36SE: Olympic Viewing A 2018 Gallup poll of 2228 randomly selected U.S. adults found that 39 planned to... Problem 37SE: Global Warming Historically (from about 2001 to 2014), 57 of Americans believed that global warming... Problem 38SE: Plane Crashes According to one source, 50 of plane crashes are due at least in part to pilot error... Problem 39SE: Mercury in Freshwater Fish Some experts believe that 20 of all freshwater fish in the United States... Problem 40SE: Twitter Suppose a poll is taken that shows 220 out of 400 randomly selected Twitter users feel that... Problem 41SE: Morse’s Proportion of ts Samuel Morse determined that the percentage of ts in the English language... Problem 42SE: Morse’s Proportion of as Samuel Morse determined that the percentage of as in the English language... Problem 43SE: p-Values (Example 11) A researcher carried out a hypothesis test using a two-sided alternative... Problem 44SE: Coin Flips A test is conducted in which a coin is flipped 30 times to test whether the coin is... Problem 45SE: Young Voters (Example 12) According to the Brookings Institution, 50 of eligible 18-to 29-year-old... Problem 46SE: Errors with Toast Suppose you are testing someone to see whether he or she can tell butter from... Problem 47SE: Blackstone on Errors in Trials Sir William Blackstone 1723-1780 wrote influential books on common... Problem 48SE: Alpha By establishing a small value for the significance level, are we guarding against the first... Problem 49SE: Superpower (Example 13) What superpower do Americans want most? In past years, 10 of Americans chose... Problem 50SE: Flaws The null hypothesis on true/false tests is that the student is guessing, and the proportion of... Problem 51SE: Which Method? A proponent of a new proposition on a ballot wants to know whether the proposition is... Problem 52SE: Which Method? A proponent of a new proposition on a ballot wants to know the population percentage... Problem 53SE: Effectiveness of Financial Incentives A psychologist is interested in testing whether offering... Problem 54SE: Is it acceptable practice to look at your research results, note the direction of the difference,... Problem 55SE: If we reject the null hypothesis, can we claim to have proved that the null hypothesis is false? Why... Problem 56SE: If we do not reject the null hypothesis, is it valid to say that we accept the null hypothesis? Why... Problem 57SE: When a person stands trial for murder, the jury is instructed to assume that the defendant is... Problem 58SE: When, in a criminal court, a defendant is found “not guilty,” is the court saying with certainty... Problem 59SE: Arthritis A magazine advertisement claims that wearing a magnetized bracelet will reduce arthritis... Problem 60SE: No-Carb Diet A weight-loss diet claims that it causes weight loss by eliminating carbohydrates... Problem 61SE: When comparing two sample proportions with a two-sided alternative hypothesis, all other factors... Problem 62SE: When comparing two sample proportions with a two-sided alternative hypothesis, all other factors... Problem 63SE: Treatment for HIV-1 In a 2018 study reported in The Lancet, Molina et al. reported on a study for... Problem 64SE: Smoking Cessation in HIV Patients In a 2018 study reported in The Lancet, Mercie et al. investigated... Problem 65SE: Reading (Example 14) The researchers in a Pew study interviewed two random samples, one in 2015 and... Problem 66SE: Audio Books Pew Research published survey results from two random samples. Both samples were asked,... Problem 67SE: Freedom of the Press A Gallup poll asked college students in 2016 and again in 2017 whether they... Problem 68SE: Freedom of Religion A Gallup poll asked college students in 2016 and again in 2017 whether they... Problem 69SE: Environmental Quality (Example 15) A Gallup poll asked a random samples of Americans in 2016 and... Problem 70SE: Caregiving Responsibilities In 2017 the Pew Research Center conducted a survey on family-leave... Problem 71CRE Problem 72CRE: Choosing a Test and Naming the Population(s) For each of the following, state whether a... Problem 73CRE: Choosing a Test and Giving the Hypotheses Give the null and alternative hypotheses for each test,... Problem 74CRE: Choosing a Test and Naming the Population(s) In each case, choose whether the appropriate test is a... Problem 75CRE: Water Taste Test A student who claims that he can tell tap water from bottled water is blindly... Problem 76CRE: Butter Taste Test A student is tested to determine whether she can tell butter from margarine. She... Problem 77CRE: Biased Coin? A study is done to see whether a coin is biased. The alternative hypothesis used is... Problem 78CRE: Biased Coin? A study is done to see whether a coin is biased. The alternative hypothesis used is... Problem 79CRE: ESP A researcher studying extrasensory perception (ESP) tests 300 students. Each student is asked to... Problem 80CRE: Coin Flips Suppose you tested 50 coins by flipping each of them many times. For each coin, you... Problem 81CRE: Student Age A community college used enrollment records of all students and reported that that the... Problem 82CRE: Taste Test A student was tested to see if he could tell the difference between two different brands... Problem 83CRE: Facebook Pew Research conducts polls on social media use. In 2012, 66 of those surveyed reported... Problem 84CRE: Television In the Pew Research social media survey, television viewers were asked if it would be... Problem 85CRE: Presidential Election Pew Research reported that in the 2016 presidential election, 53 of all male... Problem 86CRE: Educational Attainment According to a 2016 report by the Census Bureau, 60.1 of women and 57.6 of... Problem 87CRE: Self-Employment According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 10.1 of Americans are self-employed. A... Problem 88CRE: Student Loans According to a 2016 report from the Institute for College Access and Success 66 of all... Problem 89CRE: Gun Control A Quinnipiac poll conducted on February 20, 2018, found that 824 people out of 1249... Problem 90CRE: Gay Marriage A Gallup poll conducted in 2017 found that 648 out of 1011 people surveyed supported... Problem 91CRE: Three-Strikes Law California’s controversial “three-strikes law” requires judges to sentence anyone... Problem 92CRE Problem 93CRE Problem 94CRE: Cloning Dolly the Sheep, the world’s first mammal to be cloned, was introduced to the public in... Problem 95CRE: A friend claims he can predict the suit of a card drawn from a standard deck of 52 cards. There are... Problem 96CRE: A friend claims he can predict how a six-sided die will land. The parameter, p, is the long-run... Problem 97CRE: Votes for Independents Judging on the basis of experience, a politician claims that 50 of voters in... Problem 98CRE: Votes for Independents Refer to Exercise 8.97. Suppose 14 out of 20 voters in Pennsylvania report... Problem 99CRE: Texting While Driving The mother of a teenager has heard a claim that 25 of teenagers who drive and... Problem 100CRE: True/False Test A teacher giving a true/false test wants to make sure her students do better than... Problem 101CRE: ESP Suppose a friend says he can predict whether a coin flip will result in heads or tails. You test... Problem 102CRE: ESP Again Suppose a friend says he can predict whether a coin flip will result in heads or tails.... Problem 103CRE: Does Hand Washing Save Lives? In the mid-1800s, Dr. Ignaz Semmelweiss decided to make doctors wash... Problem 104CRE: Opioid Crisis Suppose you wanted to test the claim that the majority of U.S. voters are satisfied... Problem 105CRE: Guessing on a True/False Test A true/false test has 50 questions. Suppose a passing grade is 35 or... Problem 106CRE: Guessing on a Multiple-Choice Test A multiple-choice test has 50 questions with four possible... format_list_bulleted