Aspirin is one of the most consumed painkillers created up to this date due to its reliability and low expense. It is often used to relieve minor aches and pains, reduce fever and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Due to its wide range of uses, the demand for this pharmaceutical is very high. As a result, manufacturers who produce this drug must be efficient in order to reduce the time taken to produce this drug and produce the in very high quantities.
The over the counter medication once known only for its ability of easing aches and pains or fighting off fever and inflammation is proving itself to be quite the miracle drug. Aspirin has become part of the protocol for stroke victims as a preventative measure due to its neuro-protective benefits. Stroke can cause lesions in cerebral white matter, which may result in cognitive impairments such as deficits in learning and memory. White matter lesions (WML) have also been linked to increasing the risk of post-stroke dementia. Cerebral white matter damage has been widely overlooked. Comprised of oligodendrocytes that form the insulating myelin in the CNS, white matter is evidentially just as vulnerable to ischemia as gray matter.
In determining the melting point range of the aspirin, a capillary tube (sealed at one end) was one-third-filled with the dried aspirin. The capillary tube and a thermometer were immersed in an oil bath. The temperature at which the solid started to melt and the temperature when the entire sample was completely liquefied were recorded as the melting point temperature range.
The goal of this experiment was to synthesize aspirin. In this experiment aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, was synthesized from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. In the reaction the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring in salicylic acid reacted with acetic anhydride to form an ester functional group. This method of forming acetylsalicylic acid is an esterification reaction. Since this esterification reaction is not spontaneous, sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst to initiate the reaction. After the reaction was complete some unreacted acetic anhydride and salicylic acid was still be present in the solution as well as some sulfuric acid, aspirin, and acetic acid. Crystallization, which uses the principle of
We made sure the solution is strongly acidic by testing it with litmus paper getting a pH of 2. We then cooled the mixture to room temperature swirling the flask occasionally in an ice bath. We collected the aspirin by vacuum filtration and washed the aspirin on the filter with cold distilled water. We let it air dry for 30-35 minutes and then weighed the aspirin. It weighed out at 0.513g. The unknown component was calculated and weighed at 0.738g.
Not all of the aspirin will be converted to sodium acetylsalicylate, so it will instead remain in the organic layer and be weighed with the unknown. Therefore, the reported weight of aspirin will be too low, while the unknown will be weighed too high.
Aspirin Recrysalization Data Table Actual Mass (g) 0.41 Actual MP (ºC) 123-125 Expected Mass (g) 0.533 Expected MP (ºC) 135 Percent Recovery 77% Percent Error 8%
The purpose of the experiment was to compare antacids by the amounts acid they neutralize to find the most effective antacid. Finding the most effective antacid is important because it will help others by allowing them to choose the best product for their heartburn. Titration is the process of which the unknown solutions concentration reacts with a known solution concentration. During the experiment, titration was used to calculate the moles of HCl neutralized by the antacid in this case was gelusil, by knowing the moles of HCl initially added to the flask and moles of HCl neutralized by the NaOH.
Both Aspirin and the Unknown are soluble in dichloromethane, due to their non-polar characteristics. To separate the two components, sodium bicarbonate was added (see figure 3). Sodium bicarbonate reacted with aspirin and converted it to a salt, also forming water and carbon dioxide. It was observed that the solution "fizzed" when this reaction took place, showing the release of carbon dioxide. The newly formed salt then traveled to an aqueous layer where it was soluble, while the unknown remained in the dichloromethane layer. The two layers were then separated. To collect an aspirin solid, the combination of the addition of HCl and the process of vacuum filtration helped to break down the salt and form a solid. Then the solid was placed in the Fisher Scientific Biotemp Oven to dry it to a constant mass of 0.091 g, 32.97% of the total composition. The
The filter paper, holding the aspirin crystals, was removed from the funnel and was left to dry before being weighed. Once the aspirin crystals were weighed, the theoretical yield and the percent yield of the experiment were calculated. The procedure was repeated once more using the same steps.
In this experiment, 0.31 g (2.87 mmol) of 2-methylphenol was suspended in a 10 mL Erlenmeyer flask along with 1 mL of water and a stir bar. The flask was clamped onto a hotplate/stirrer and turned on so that the stir bar would turn freely. Based on the amount of 2-methylphenol, 0.957 mL (0.00287 mmol) NaOH was calculated and collected in a syringe. The NaOH was then added to the 2-methylphenol solution and allowed to mix completely. In another 10 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 0.34 g (2.92 mmol) of sodium chloroacetate was calculated based on the amount of 2-methylphenol and placed into the flask along with 1 mL of water. The sodium chloroacetate solution was mixed until dissolved. The sodium chloroacetate solution was poured into the 2-methylphenol and NaOH solution after it was fully dissolved using a microscale funnel.
Drug A: After the cells are exposed to drug A, an increase in the amount of cyclic AMP is seen on the diagram. Since A increased the amount of cAMP above the basal level, A is an agonist. In this particular experiment, we do not see an agonist that leads to a higher increase in activity; we can thus assume that A is a full agonist.
A study was conducted by the University, testing a new drug that could temporarily stimulate different areas of the brain. This report will inform you on the general basics of the study, the results and what is important about the effects, and some experimental issues found in this study.
Protein concentration needed to be determined to assure that SDS-PAGE would work effectively since too high or too low protein concentration of each sample would result in erroneous gels. Before measuring the protein concentration in the acetone powder solutions, a BSA curve needed to be created to find a conversion factor. In the BSA curve, there appeared to be a positive correlation between absorbance (A) and the amount of BSA protein (μg) when observing the best fit line (Figure 1). This was confirmed with a slope or conversion factor of 0.0255 A595/μg (Figure 1).
Accuracy and Precision were obtained by measuring the concentration of three variations of a simulated sample created by mixing SV, ASP and SAC then dissolved in a solvent mixture of methanol: water (60: 40). Simvastatin's concentration were (0.6; 1; 1.5 μg/ml), whereas the Aspartame's and Saccharin's concentrations were fixed at 0.5 and 0.3μg/ml. Each variation concentration was measured on SV wavelength measurement respectively in six times and then calculated %recovery and relative standard deviation %RSD. Intraday and interday precision were obtained from the determination of the SV in co-crystal form with claimed concentration 0.8 μg/ml in two