Essay On Exosomes

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Clinical utility and research model of exosomes in PC
As the content of exosomes is cell type specific with extensive variety of molecular information carried forth from parent cells to secondary cells, exosomes may provide an idiosyncratic ‘signature’ of tumor development and metastatic progression, as well as the metabolic status of the tumor. In spite of the fact, that the mechanism of packaging is yet to be completely comprehended, it has been seen that the metastatic tumor cells shows high ability of packing and cargo secretion (that is, protein, RNA, DNA and metabolites) in exosome 373, 376. To date, numerous of studies have outlined clinical utility of exosomes as a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tool in PC patients (Table
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In a research, Madhavan et al. outlined that combination of five proteins (CD44v6, Tspan8, EpCAM, MET and CD104) and four miRNAs (miR-1246, miR-4644, miR-3976 and miR-4306) in circulating tumor exosomes could recognize PC from healthy control, chronic pancreatitis and benign pancreatic disease with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 80% respectively383.
Exosomal micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have additionally increased generous consideration in later past years. From the recent studies, the number of exosomal miRNAs including miR-21, miR-17-5p, miR-155, miR-34, miR-196a, miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-138-5p, miR-494, miR-542-3p, miR-31, and miR-205 has been identified and upregulation of these miRNAs has been shown to regulate cellular proliferation, angiogenesis promotion, disease progression, metastasis and chemo-resistance in PC patients384-392. These studies highlight the potential use of exosomal miRNAs as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Additionally, targeting the exosomal miRNAs might be a potential therapy for PC.
It has been found that miRNAs in circulating exosomes are representative of those upregulated in the primary tumor cells16. In a separate study, Ohuchida et al. distinguished 24 miRNAs with altered expression in gemcitabine-resistant cells, and furthermore found that patients with high miR-142-5p and miR-204 expression had significantly longer survival times than those with low miR-142-5p and miR-204 expression in the
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