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Literature Reviews On Biosensors And Risk Perpection And Communications

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEWS ON BIOSENSORS AND RISK PERPECTION AND COMMUNICATIONS
1) INTRODUCTION
In time past, work relating to this project has been done. This Chapter aims at reviewing such works, compare research studies and provide a work base for this project. Cancer diagnosis is presently undergoing a paradigm shift with the integration of molecular biomarkers as part of a routine diagnostic panel. The molecular shift ranges from those comprising of the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs were newly discovered as a small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically controls the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers [13]. MiRNAs are different with cancers; they are seen to have the potential to function as diagnostic markers for cancer. Also, the deregulating of the activities of miRNAs offers a novel cancer therapeutic approach that provides high throughput techniques for the identification of changed cellular molecules [13]. The application of miRNAs to a change of body specimens from blood to tissues has been beneficial and is valued in the clinical environment. Generally, the novel cancer diagnostic tools have extended their application as prognostic risk factors that are also targeted as a personalized medicine to individuals. Figure 5: Molecular diagnostic schema representing routine biological specimens and their molecular alterations [13]
It has been noted that delivering an early and accurate diagnosis in cancer
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