Organic Solvents : A New Approach For Organic Synthesis

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Technically, water is considered as the universal solvent in Nature. However, the prevalent notion among today’s chemists is that water is often forgotten in organic synthesis; many considerations are taken in the process of selecting solvents, reagents, and conditions which are water-free. In addition to the obvious problem that concerns about the surrounding water-sensitive reactants, the main problem is solubility which is the requirement for reactions to occur, and it is a justification for the use of many organic solvents at the exclusion of anything else in organic synthesis. Nevertheless, many living biochemical reactions mostly happen in an aqueous medium. The concern about environment and safety is another reason that has flamed up the interest in Green Chemistry, which prompted more researches into alternatives to traditional organic solvents. Therefore, water is a very promising candidate for the future choice of solvent as it is cheap, reusable, nonvolatile and safe to handling of exothermic or heat-releasing reactions. Even though water has many advantages in organic synthesis, the low solubility of organics reagents has prevented the expanding utilization of water as a standard solvent.
In the past, water was not quite a common choice in the process of organic synthesis. However, one of the earliest experiments that took advantages of water as solvent was Wohler’s urea synthesis in 1828, as well as
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