The kidney is one of the most important organs in the human body. It supports and carries many bodily functions, primarily in excretion of wastes and filtration of the needed nutrients and products to maintain homeostasis in the body. However, if these two functions fail to do its part in the system, it will disrupt the its own cycle and will result to some diseases and abnormalities. One of the most common of these abnormalities is the presence of too much protein in the urine, or commonly known as Proteinuria.
The kidney is an important organ of the body because it serves as a filter for the wastes in the bodies. Ideally, urine contains very little amounts of protein. It cannot surpass the perm selectivity of the glomerulus because proteins are considered as macromolecules; they are too big to be filtered. The normal amount of protein that should be present in urine is 150mg/day or less, but in some cases, it exceeds the normal range, which results to a “foamy” urine. This is what happens in Proteinuria.
II. History/ Overview
Dating back to the time of Hippocrates, whom first inspected and described the presence of bubbles in the urine, paved way to the discovery of Proteinuria. Various methods sprung out during latter centuries. One physician who started the study is Frederick Dekkers, sho came up ith idea that that it as milk that causes the abnormality. But his idea was changed as soon as other physicians prove their side. One of the most prominent
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From my longhand calculation sheet, my protein RDA goal based on 0.8 g protein/kg body weight was 43.9 g/day, which is slightly lower than my 3-day average intake which was 45.08 g. According to these values, I am not concerned about my protein intake value because protein is not a major source of energy and it does not store in the body. As a result, for me, maintaining the similar amount of protein intake is a better choice. If the protein are over consumed, it might leads to the deficiency of nutrient-dense foods intake and increase potential risks of kidney disease and colon cancer (Hammond, 2016b). On the other hand, if we consume too less protein, the risks of malnutrition and life-threatened diseases such
Every day the kidney’s filter on an average of about 120 to 150 quarts of blood that produces 1 to 2 quarts of urine that has extra fluid and waste. The importance of the kidney is to keep the blood stable so the body can function properly. The fluids that are removed from the body help prevent blood cells and large molecules (proteins) from passing. Once filtered it can pass through the tubule that sends minerals back into the blood stream to remove waste (niddk.nih.gov).
Polyuria: is more than normal or increased urine output. Water homeostasis is controlled by a complex balance of water intake, renal perfusion, glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption of solutes, and reabsorption of water from the renal collecting ducts. When intake of water increases, blood volume rises and blood osmolality falls, lowering the release of ADH (arginine vasopressin, which promotes water reabsorption) in the hypothalamic pituitary system. With the lowering of ADH there is a rise in urine volume, which allows blood osmolality to return to normal. Urine containing large amounts of glucose has high osmotic pressure, which attracts water, so that urine output rises (osmotic diuresis).
Since the subjects had consumed more water, there was more water that would need to be excreted. Therefore, the membranes of the distal and collecting tubes would need to be less permeable in order to not allow too much water to pass through. The salt group generally produced a smaller average volume of more concentrated urine due to the fact that the increased solute concentration promoted the production of ADH, which increased the permeability of the distal and collecting tube membranes. More water was reabsorbed, so that left less water to be added to the urea and excreted. The resulting urine was a smaller volume than the control and generally more concentrated due to the lack of water being excreted. These results support previous work done in regards to consumption of higher levels of solute resulting in an increased production of ADH and smaller volumes of higher concentration urine (Hillyard
In the human body, there are systems that provide different functions and help the body to operate more efficiently. The urinary system is one in particular designed to help the body remain free of excess that we no longer need. “The urinary tract is the drainage system used for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. The kidneys are a pair of “bean-shaped” organs, each about the size of a fist. The kidneys are located below the ribs, one on each side of the spine, towards the middle of the back.” (NIDDK, 2013) Every several minutes, your kidneys filter around three ounces of blood, also then removing wastes and extra water. That extra water and
There are also a few tests that will show whether or not the kidneys are filtering the body’s fluids as they should. A simple urinalysis can be done to detect protein or blood in the urine. This will alert the medical professionals to a possible problem with the proper functioning of the kidneys. There are also Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) tests that will measure the
One of the problems you can have in understanding protein is that there is so much information out there on protein, most of it contradictory, most of it wrong. It's time that you had the truth about protein; just the facts and nothing but
As aging progresses, the kidneys begin to lose anatomical structures and physiological functions. Only 3% of the elderly have normal kidney structure and function (Mareib and Hoehn, 2012). This is most commonly observed by the loss of renal mass; this can start in early adulthood and 50-90g can be lost. At 90 years old the kidneys weigh 20-40% less than that at 30 years (Saladin, 2010). This loss starts from ages 30-59, and is most considerable from ages 60-70 (Čukuranović and Vlajković, 2005). The loss in renal mass can be primarily attributed to the cortex area and the decline in renal blood flow (Čukuranović and Vlajković, 2005). The changes in renal blood flow will be discussed later. The cortex mass loss is due to the loss of 30-40% the amount of functional nephrons. After the kidney length peak at ages 20-30, there is a subtle shrinking until age 60 and then the decrease accelerates (Čukuranović and Vlajković, 2005).
The chicken breast muscle had the highest number of proteins present (13), while the porcine kidney had the least (3) amount present (Table 2). The protein with the largest mass appeared to be the first protein in the chicken breast muscle lane at 192.5 kDa (Table 2). There was also a trend that two protein bands with an apparent mass of 64.6 ± 2.67 kDa and 78.5 ± 2.13 kDa appeared in each of the different acetone powder lanes (Table 2). The protein with the smallest mass was found in the calf liver at 17.0 kDa (Table
To explain how diabetes affects the different systems, we need to know how the act normally. The urinary system normal function is to maintain the acid-base balance, conserve fluids, regulate the amount of salts and water in the blood and eliminate liquid waste, known as urea. The urinary system works together with the lungs, skin and intestines to maintain the balance of chemicals and water in the body. The typical adult urinates approximately twenty-seven to sixty-eight fluid once a day of urine. The urinary system includes 2 kidneys (the primary organs in the urinary system), ureters, a bladder and urethra. The kidney is where the filtration occurs, it balances salts and waters. The kidney’s is where nephrons also known as filtering units.
According to HealthLinkBC and University of Rochester, proteins are not normally found in the urine. If proteins are found it could be a sign of kidney disease, cancer, diabetes, lupus, congestive heart failure, sickle-cell disease, etc. Glycosuria can be caused by too much sugar being present in the urine. In addition, sugar in the urine can cause diabetes (Type 1 or Type 2) and kidney disease. Since the color of the urine and nutritional drink came out orange, this means that there is an abundance amount of sugar.
CAUSES OF ALBUMINURIA High blood pressure, Congestive heart failure Metabolic syndrome, or kidney damage from nephrotic syndrome ALBUMINURIA is seen in all forms of acute and chronic renal diseases GLUCOSE Glucose is found in the blood and is the main sugar that the body manufactures Glucosuria- The presence of glucose or blood sugar in urine is. It may indicate that the person has diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus - condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed int o the cells of the body. SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS frequent urination increased thirst increased hunger The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injecti ons of insulin.
One of the diseases is diabetes mellitus which is a major cause of renal failure. This disease can be defined as an increase of fasting blood glucose that is affected by a deficiency in insulin hormone. The normal range for glucose (fasting) in the blood is 2.8-6.0 mmol/L. It is classified into two groups, type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) and type 2 (non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Stein (2008, p.6) points out that kidney failure happens most often when patients have suffered from diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years. According to United States Renal Data System (USRDS) report in 2007, approximately 44% of primary causes of renal failure is diabetes mellitus in the United States in 2005. Also, Stein (2008) indicates that 15% of dialysis patients are influenced by diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom. Diabetes mellitus has negative affects throughout the kidneys where the increase of the range of blood sugar causes the damages to the cells in the kidneys. This leads to the presence of the glucose in the urine which is known as glycosuric.