The density of water is its mass divided by its volume. In this case, the mass of water was determined by subtracting the final mass of the glassware with water by the initial mass of the glassware without water. The volume was determined by observing closely which line (marked on the sides of each glassware) the water reached and reporting the most precise measurement. Based on the class data, the average densities of water and its standard deviations were: 50-mL beaker – avg: 0.90 g/mL, stand dev: 0.12, 10-mL graduated cylinder – avg: 0.980 g/mL, stand dev: 0.0600, 10-mL volumetric pipette– avg: 0.9800 g/mL, stand. dev: 0.06499, 50-mL burette– avg: 0.969 g/mL, stand. dev: 0.140. The average density of water compares our experimental value to the true value. This means that the closer our values are to the true density of water, which is approximately 0.998 g/mL at 18.89°C, the more accurate our data is. Furthermore, the standard deviation measures how precise our results are with one another. Based on the four data sets of the class, the most precise volumetric glassware is the 10-mL graduated cylinder because its standard deviation is the lowest. This lower value indicates that this glassware consistently yielded similar densities of water more often than other glassware. Although tied with the volumetric pipette, the graduated cylinder is also the most accurate volumetric glassware because the resulting average of its water densities is closest to the real density of

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Procedure: I used a ruler, thermometer, and scale to take measurements. I used a graduated cylinder, short step pipet, scale, and ruler to determine volume and density. I used a volumetric flask, graduated pipet, pipet bulb, scale, and glass beaker to determine concentrations and densities of various dilutions.

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Procedure: Using distilled water, premeasured containers and objects determine displacement of fluids and density of objects. Use ice and heat measure temperatures in Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin.

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## Lab 6: Exploring Density

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## Experiment Two: Laboratory Techniques And Measurements

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To create a practical that is considered scientifically accurate, one must have a sample size of 500 or larger in order to prove the results significance. Inconsistent glass wear/apparatus: to solve this problem, one can simply redo the practical but using different apparatus each time to find the correct results. The concentration difference between each beaker: simply one could take a sample from each beaker and test the concentration and the Ph factor of each individual beaker.

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