There are four major theories of the Human Development. The first one being Psychoanalytic theory. Freud and Erikson, were the ones that helped create it by using two different theories. Freud came up with psychosexual theory which is proposing that sexual desire is driving force behind development. There was total of five stages from infancy, toddlerhood, early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence. With these stages, it calorized them into what they are growing up. Erikson had a total of eight stages that dealt with the mind and behavior aspect. With these eight stages, a developments forms from infancy to all the way to late adulthood. An example would be a girl at age of 8 saw her parents get divorced having that event in her life made her think relationships for wont work like her parents did. The second one is Behaviorism, the three main creators of it was J Watson, I Povlor and B F Skinner. Behaviorism is learning and finding out methods of patterns of how to act or apply to everyday life by learning a behavior or consequence from wrong and right of a behavior. An example would be, A parent and a kid going to a store. The kid is balling out crying screaming not getting a toy or type of food they want. For that to stop you offer them a candy bar before checking out which makes the crying stop. Doing a behavior like this will give outcome no crying gets a kid a candy bar. Later, the bad behavior turns good because the kids are no longer crying due reward at
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There are various theories of development that provide a strategic framework on how individuals and societies interpret the growth. development and learning of human beings. Throughout the history of psychology, psychologists have proposed numerous theories to predict and interpret different aspects of human behavior. Some theories are well-supported by researchers; and others, are still under examination or partially accepted by researchers. Two theories, Erikson's Theory of Psychological Development, and Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development are both well-accepted and have helped to contribute to our knowledge of the human mind and behavior. Theories such as Freud's Psychosexual Theory have not had much success and have been replaced by other theories to explain human growth and development. Spiritual development is a dimension that has as much significance as psychological and cognitive development.
Erikson was a psychologist who was greatly influenced by Freud. Although influenced by Freud there are some differences in there developmental stages. Erikson believed that development in an individual was molded by society, culture, and environment. While Freud’s belief was that development is in some way is influenced by the fixation of sexual interest of different areas of the body. The stages in Erikson’s development theory outline how important social experiences can shape us. While Freud’s theory is mainly based on ones sexuality. Additionally the other significant difference between Erikson’s and Freud’s theories is the outcome of a particular stage. Erikson believed that the outcome of a certain stage was not permanent and that it could be changed later on in life. While Freud presumed that if an individual became fixated on a stage problems associated with that stage would be carried on through life.
In 1905 Sigmund Freud theorized that childhood development happens in stages, which are called “Psychosexual Development Stages.” In 1950 Erik Erikson developed “Psychosocial Stages,” which are greatly influenced by Freud’s theories. Freud’s theory centers on psychosexual energy or the libido. Erickson’s theory centers on issues and tasks being met at specific ages. Even though we are sexual beings, our developmental stages do not focus entirely on sexual pleasures. Both theories do show that personality develops in stages. Although, Erickson’s theory is the better theory.
The issue of human development has been a related one within the human society. In this respect, there are several developmental theories that have been forwarded by some of the world’s most well-known psychologists. The two main psychoanalytic theories are Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory. They are the two names that one cannot miss while talking about psychology. Sigmund Freud is called the father of psychology while Erik Erikson’s ideas have become the best known.
Children develop through many stages in their life. They will reach developmental milestones which are things that most children can do by that certain age. Infants which are aged between birth and 3 years old will develop muscularly from the head downward. They will be able to control their head first, they will then be able to pick things up and use their hands then finally they development of their legs and feet then beginning to walk. They will start to focus their vision. The language used in infants is just small babbling noises such as ‘mama’ and ‘dada’. During this stage they will also develop love and trust bonds. Infants will begin to look for fallen objects and will be able to respond to their own name.
Developmental psychology is an area of research dedicated to the understanding of child-development. Throughout history many theories have been used to attempt to explain the complex process. Two of those theorists, Freud and Erikson, were instrumental in creating a foundation for child-psychology to build on. From a Freudian perspective, human development is centered on psychosexual theory. Psychosexual theory indicates that maturation of the sex drives underlies stages of personality development. Alternatively, Erikson is considered a neo-freudian scholar who developed psychosocial theory. In Erikson models there are eight major conflicts that occur during the course of an individual’s life.
There are seven stages a human moves through during his or her life span. These stages include infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and old age.
In 1959, Erik Erikson introduced his theory of psychosocial development. His psychoanalytic theory consists of eight different stages that span throughout a person’s life and each stage consists of a crisis that must be resolved as either a positive value or a negative outcome. This preset order through which individuals develop is known as an epigenetic principle. According to Santrock (2016), contrary to Freud’s theory, which was introduced years earlier, Erikson insisted that humans develop psychosocially instead of psychosexually. In other words, instead of human motivation being rooted in sexual behavior, it is instead derived from a social need to interact with others. Two individuals who portray Erikson’s particular theory are
There are many theories on Human Development which include Psychoanalytic theory- this help us to understand human behaviour, it tells us that to understand adults we have to look back at what happened to them as children for instance an adult who can not cope in a social setting may have been bullied as a child and is now afraid to speak to new people or Every time the vehicle she is riding in stops suddenly, Mrs. Smith panics. She thinks this is because she was in a car accident when she was a child, and in each new situation the fear of another accident crashes over her like a wave or another example is Jack’s mother left his family when he was a child. Ever since then, he has had a very difficult time trusting people because he is afraid they will abandon him. Sigmund Freud is said to be the founder of this theory “Freud believed that the
Erik Erikson is known for his psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. Psychologist Erik Erikson, is a major contributor to developmental psychology, who proposed a comprehensive theory of the ways that individuals develop their identity, a sense of who they are, and society's influence on that development. Erikson stated that people go through crisis at each stage of their lives. The stages each had a developmental task to be mastered. As an individual resolved these various crises an individual would have a better harmony with their social environment that they live in. If an individual could not successfully resolve a crisis, they would be” out of step”, and the individual would have a greater difficulty in their dealing with a crisis in the future. Erikson did however recognize that an individual can develop through a stage negatively and still go on with their life. Erikson stated that each of the psychological stages have a basic conflict and important event leading to growth. The theory was developed from his hundreds of clinical observations in children.
Erikson (1950, 1963), does not speak about psychosexual Stages as Freud, though influenced Freudian ideas. Erikson broadens on Freudian thoughts by focusing on acclimatize and creative characteristic of the ego, and escalating the stages of personality development to progress throughout the entire life. Erik taught the ego develops as it successfully resolves predicaments that are distinctly social. Erikson suggested that the human development process functions by a series of stages, which defined as the epigenetic principle of development.
Freud’s psychosexual theory and Erikson’s psychosocial theory are two important psychoanalytic theories on human development. Erikson’s theory was followed on Freud’s theory and it was based on many of Freud’s ideas. As a result of this the two theories have similarities. Both the theories recognize the importance of development. They also separates development into stages and contain similar age division for their developmental stages.
Erikson’s theory followed Freud´s and it was based on many of Freud´s ideas. He had studied at Anna Freud, Freud’s daughter in Vienna. Erikson´s and Freud´s theories have similarities. Both theories admit the importance of the unconscious on development. They also both separates development into stages of a person´s life and handle similar age spans for these developmental stages. However, there are also differences that exist between names of the stages and the developmental subjects that are assumed during each stage. Part of the reason for that is that each psychologist has his own exclusive view of what causes a person’s development.