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18-22 Answer true or false. (a) Fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids, with most consisting of between 12 to 20 carbons in an unbranched chain. (b) An unsaturated fatty acid contains one or more carbon—carbon double bonds in its hydrocarbon chain. (c) In most unsaturated fatty acids found in animal fats, vegetable oils, and biological membranes, the cis isomer predominates. (d) In general, unsaturated fatty acids have lower melting points than saturated fatty acids with the same number of carbon atoms. (e) Natural soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. (f) Soaps remove grease, oil, and fat stains by incorporating these substances into the nonpolar interior of soap micelles. (g) “Hard water," by definition, is water that contains Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + , or Fe 3 + ions, all of which react with soap molecules to form water-insoluble salts. (h) The structure of synthetic detergents is patterned after that of natural soaps. (i) The most widely used synthetic detergents are the linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS). (j) Present-day synthetic detergents do not form water-insoluble salts with hard water. (k) Most detergent preparations contain foam stabilizers, a bleach, and optical brighteners (optical bleaches).

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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
Chapter 18, Problem 18.22P
Textbook Problem
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18-22 Answer true or false.

(a) Fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids, with most consisting of between 12 to 20 carbons in an unbranched chain.

(b) An unsaturated fatty acid contains one or more carbon—carbon double bonds in its hydrocarbon chain.

(c) In most unsaturated fatty acids found in animal fats, vegetable oils, and biological membranes, the cis isomer predominates.

(d) In general, unsaturated fatty acids have lower melting points than saturated fatty acids with the same number of carbon atoms.

(e) Natural soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids.

(f) Soaps remove grease, oil, and fat stains by incorporating these substances into the nonpolar interior of soap micelles.

(g) “Hard water," by definition, is water that contains Ca2+, Mg2+, or Fe3+ ions, all of which react with soap molecules to form water-insoluble salts.

(h) The structure of synthetic detergents is patterned after that of natural soaps.

(i) The most widely used synthetic detergents are the linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS).

(j) Present-day synthetic detergents do not form water-insoluble salts with hard water.

(k) Most detergent preparations contain foam stabilizers, a bleach, and optical brighteners (optical bleaches).

Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Explanation of Solution

The long carboxylic acids with 12-20 Carbon atoms are called as fatty acids...

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(d)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(e)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(f)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(g)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(h)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(i)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(j)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

Interpretation Introduction

(k)

Interpretation:

To identify the whether the given statement is true or false.

Concept Introduction:

Fatty acids are biomolecules which involves in different parts of living organism. They are basically organic molecules with certain functional group.

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
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Ch. 18 - 18-11 Draw a structural formula for each...Ch. 18 - 18-12 Calcium oxalate is a major component of...Ch. 18 - 18-13 The monopotassium salt of oxalic acid is...Ch. 18 - 18-14 Answer true or false. (a) Carboxylic acids...Ch. 18 - 18-15 Draw a structural formula for the dimer...Ch. 18 - 18-16 Propanedioic (malonic) acid forms an...Ch. 18 - 18-17 Hexanoic (caproic) acid has a solubility in...Ch. 18 - 18-18 Propanoic acid and methyl acetate are...Ch. 18 - 18-19 The following compounds have approximately...Ch. 18 - 18-20 The following compounds have approximately...Ch. 18 - 18-21 Arrange these compounds in order of...Ch. 18 - 18-22 Answer true or false. (a) Fatty acids are...Ch. 18 - 18-23 Characterize the structural features...Ch. 18 - 18-24 The detergents illustrated in this chapter...Ch. 18 - 18-25 Following are structural formulas for two...Ch. 18 - 18-26 Answer true or false. (a) Carboxylic acids...Ch. 18 - 18-27 Alcohols, phenols, and carboxylic acids all...Ch. 18 - 18-28 Arrange these compounds in order of...Ch. 18 - 18-29 Complete the equations for these acid—base...Ch. 18 - 18-30 Complete the equations for these acid-base...Ch. 18 - 18-31 Formic acid is one of the components...Ch. 18 - 18-32 Starting with the definition of Ka of a weak...Ch. 18 - 18-33 Using the equation from Problem 18-32 that...Ch. 18 - 18-34 The pKa of acetic acid is 4.75. What form(s)...Ch. 18 - 18-35 The normal pH range for blood plasma is 7.35...Ch. 18 - 18-36 The pKa of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, see...Ch. 18 - 18-37 Complete the equations for the following...Ch. 18 - 18-38 Which is the stronger base: CH3CH2NH2 or...Ch. 18 - 18-39 Complete the equations for the following...Ch. 18 - 18-40 Define and give an example of Fischer...Ch. 18 - 18-41 Complete these examples of Fischer...Ch. 18 - 18-42 From what carboxylic acid and alcohol is...Ch. 18 - 18-43 Methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate (methyl salicylate)...Ch. 18 - 18-44 Show how you could convert cinnamic acid to...Ch. 18 - 18-45 Give the expected organic product formed...Ch. 18 - 18-46 Procaine (its hydrochloride salt is marketed...Ch. 18 - 18-47 Methylparaben and propylparaben are used as...Ch. 18 - 18-48 4-Aminobenzoic acid is prepared from benzoic...Ch. 18 - 18-49 When 5-hydroxypentanoic acid is treated with...Ch. 18 - 18-50 We have seen that esters can be prepared by...Ch. 18 - 18-51 Draw the structural formula of a compound...Ch. 18 - 18-52 Complete the equations for these oxidations:Ch. 18 - 18-53 In Chapter 27, we will study a metabolic...Ch. 18 - 18-54 Azithromycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic...Ch. 18 - 18-55 Below is the structural formula of a...

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