menu
bartleby
search
close search
Hit Return to see all results
close solutoin list

What two first-row transition metals have unexpected electron configurations? A statement in the text says that first-row transition metal ions do not have 4 s electrons. Why not? Why do transition metal ions often have several oxidation states, whereas representative metals generally have only one?

BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 20, Problem 1RQ
Textbook Problem
12 views

What two first-row transition metals have unexpected electron configurations? A statement in the text says that first-row transition metal ions do not have 4s electrons. Why not? Why do transition metal ions often have several oxidation states, whereas representative metals generally have only one?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The first-row two elements that have unexpected electron configurations; the reason behind the absence of 4s electrons in first-row transition metal ions and the reason behind the exhibition of several oxidation states in transition metal ions but not only one oxidation state in representative elements is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The metal atoms that act as a bridge between the s and p block elements are called transition elements. They are called the d block elements and these include the elements of group 3 to group 12 . These elements forms a large number of coordination compounds.

To determine: The first-row two elements that have unexpected electron configurations; the reason behind the absence of 4s electrons in first-row transition metal ions and the reason behind the exhibition of several oxidation states in transition metal ions but only one oxidation state in representative elements.

Answer to Problem 1RQ

Answer

The two metals that have unexpected electron configuration are chromium and copper.

Due to less effect of effective nuclear charge over 4s electrons, first-row transition metals do not have 4s electrons.

Due to the less energy gap between the (n1)d orbital and ns orbital, the electrons of both the orbital participates in the bond formation and leads to variable oxidation states of the transition metal atom.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

The expected electronic configuration of chromium is represented as,

[Ar]3d44s2

The actual electronic configuration of chromium is represented as,

[Ar]3d54s1

The expected electronic configuration of copper is represented as,

[Ar]3d94s2

The actual electronic configuration of chromium is represented as,

[Ar]3d104s1

The half filled and fully filled orbital are more stable. Therefore to attain stability, these metals attain the unexpected configuration.

Due to less effect of effective nuclear charge over 4s electrons, first-row transition metals do not have 4s electrons.

The effect of effective nuclear charge over 4s electrons is lower than that is present over 3d electrons. So, it becomes easy to remove electrons from 4s orbital than 3d orbital. That’s why first-row transition metals do not have 4s electrons.

Due to the less energy gap between the (n1)d orbital and ns orbital, the electrons of both the orbital participates in the bond formation and leads to variable oxidation states of the transition metal atom.

The electrons in transition metal atom are present in (n1)d and ns orbital and any small effect can lead to anomalous electronic configuration. Therefore, the oxidation state varies from +3 to +7 . But the number of electrons present in representative elements are lower than the transition metal atoms; therefore they exhibit only one oxidation state.

Conclusion

Conclusion

Transition metal atoms exhibit properties between s and p block elements and exhibit variable oxidation states due to participation of inner d orbital electrons and the s orbital electrons in the bond formation.

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 20 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 20 - You isolate a compound with the formula PtCl4 ...Ch. 20 - Both Ni(NH3)42+ and Ni(SCN)42 have four ligands....Ch. 20 - Which is more likely to be paramagnetic, Fe(CN)64...Ch. 20 - A metal ion in a high-spin octahedral complex has...Ch. 20 - What is the lanthanide contraction? How does the...Ch. 20 - Four different octahedral chromium coordination...Ch. 20 - Figure 20-17 shows that the cis isomer of...Ch. 20 - A certain first-row transition metal ion forms...Ch. 20 - Oxalic acid is often used to remove rust stains....Ch. 20 - For the following crystal field diagrams, label...Ch. 20 - CoCl42 forms a tetrahedral complex ion and...Ch. 20 - The following statements discuss some coordination...Ch. 20 - When concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to a...Ch. 20 - Tetrahedral complexes of Co2+ are quite common....Ch. 20 - Which of the following ligands are capable of...Ch. 20 - Compounds of copper(II) are generally colored, but...Ch. 20 - Compounds of Sc3+ are not colored, but those of...Ch. 20 - Almost all metals in nature are found as ionic...Ch. 20 - What causes high-altitude sickness, and what is...Ch. 20 - Why are CN and CO toxic to humans?Ch. 20 - Write electron configurations for the following...Ch. 20 - Write electron configurations for the following...Ch. 20 - Write electron configurations for each of the...Ch. 20 - Write electron configurations for each of the...Ch. 20 - What is the electron configuration for the...Ch. 20 - What is the electron configuration for the...Ch. 20 - Molybdenum is obtained as a by-product of copper...Ch. 20 - Titanium dioxide, the most widely used white...Ch. 20 - When 6 M ammonia is added gradually to aqueous...Ch. 20 - When an aqueous solution of KCN is added to a...Ch. 20 - Consider aqueous solutions of the following...Ch. 20 - A coordination compound of cobalt(III) contains...Ch. 20 - Name the following complex ions: a. b. c.Ch. 20 - Name the following complex ions. a. Ru(NH3)5Cl2+...Ch. 20 - Name the following coordination compounds. a....Ch. 20 - Name the following coordination compounds. a....Ch. 20 - Give formulas for the following. a. potassium...Ch. 20 - Give formulas for the following complex ions. a....Ch. 20 - Draw geometrical isomers of each of the following...Ch. 20 - Draw structures of each of the following. a....Ch. 20 - The carbonate ion (CO32) can act as either a...Ch. 20 - Amino acids can act as ligands toward transition...Ch. 20 - How many bonds could each of the following...Ch. 20 - BAL is a chelating agent used in treating heavy...Ch. 20 - Draw all geometrical and linkage isomers of...Ch. 20 - Draw all geometrical and linkage isomers of square...Ch. 20 - Acetylacetone, abbreviated acacH, is a bidentate...Ch. 20 - Draw all geometrical isomers of Pt(CN)2Br2(H2O)2....Ch. 20 - Match the crystal field diagrams given below with...Ch. 20 - Match the crystal field diagrams given below with...Ch. 20 - Draw the d-orbital splitting diagrams for the...Ch. 20 - Draw the d-orbital splitting diagrams for the...Ch. 20 - The CrF64 ion is known to have four unpaired...Ch. 20 - The Co(NH3)63+ ion is diamagnetic, but Fe(H2O)62+...Ch. 20 - How many unpaired electrons are in the following...Ch. 20 - The complex ion Fe(CN)63 is paramagnetic with one...Ch. 20 - Rank the following complex ions in order of...Ch. 20 - The complex ion Cu(H2O)62+ has an absorption...Ch. 20 - The following test tubes each contain a different...Ch. 20 - Consider the complex ions Co(NH3)63+, Co(CN)63,...Ch. 20 - The wavelength of absorbed electromagnetic...Ch. 20 - The complex ion NiCL42 has two unpaired electrons,...Ch. 20 - How many unpaired electrons are present in the...Ch. 20 - The complex ion PdCl42is diamagnetic. Propose a...Ch. 20 - A blast furnace is used to reduce iron oxides to...Ch. 20 - Use the data in Appendix 4 for the following. a....Ch. 20 - Iron is present in the earths crust in many types...Ch. 20 - What roles do kinetics and thermodynamics play in...Ch. 20 - Silver is sometimes found in nature as large...Ch. 20 - One of the classic methods for the determination...Ch. 20 - Acetylacetone (see Exercise 43, part a),...Ch. 20 - The compound cisplatin, Pt(NH3)2Cl2, has been...Ch. 20 - Use standard reduction potentials to calculate ,...Ch. 20 - Until the discoveries of Alfred Werner, it was...Ch. 20 - Draw all the geometrical isomers of...Ch. 20 - A compound related to acetylacetone is...Ch. 20 - Would it be better to use octahedral Ni2+...Ch. 20 - Name the following coordination compounds. a....Ch. 20 - give formulas for the following. a....Ch. 20 - The complex ion Ru(phen)32+ has been used as a...Ch. 20 - Carbon monoxide is toxic because it binds more...Ch. 20 - For the process Co(NH3)5Cl2++ClCO(NH3)4Cl2++NH3...Ch. 20 - In which of the following is(are) the electron...Ch. 20 - Which of the following molecules exhibit(s)...Ch. 20 - Which of the following ions is( are) expected to...Ch. 20 - The following table indicates the number of...Ch. 20 - Which of the following crystal field diagram(s)...Ch. 20 - Which of the following statement(s) is( are) true?...Ch. 20 - Consider the following complex ion, where A and B...Ch. 20 - Consider the pseudo-octahedral complex ion of...Ch. 20 - Consider the following data: where en =...Ch. 20 - Henry Taube, 1983 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry,...Ch. 20 - Chelating ligands often form more stable complex...Ch. 20 - Qualitatively draw the crystal field splitting of...Ch. 20 - Qualitatively draw the crystal field splitting for...Ch. 20 - Sketch a d-orbital energy diagram for the...Ch. 20 - Sketch and explain the most likely crystal field...Ch. 20 - The ferrate ion, FeO42, is such a powerful...Ch. 20 - Ammonia and potassium iodide solutions are added...Ch. 20 - a. In the absorption spectrum of the complex ion...Ch. 20 - There are three salts that contain complex ions of...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
What are some characteristics of the adhesive used for Post-it Notes?

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

What are the strengths and weaknesses of vegetarian diets?

Understanding Nutrition (MindTap Course List)

What is an atoll and how does it form?

Fundamentals of Physical Geography

Recognizing a nutrition authority that you can consult for reliable nutrition information can be difficult beca...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

What impact has recombinant DNA technology had on genetics and society?

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)

Why is the following situation impossible? Two samples of water are mixed at constant pressure inside an insula...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Whats a notochord?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin