   Chapter 20, Problem 5PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

A 2011 article in Science magazine stated that “Public discussion of climate change ... is just beginning to reflect an awareness of the important role played by the global nitrogen cycle.” (Figure 20.1.) As part of this cycle it was recently found that nitrite ions in soil can produce nitrous acid, HONO. [M. Kulmala and T. Petaja, Science, Vol. 333, pp. 1586-1587, 2011.) (a) Draw the Lewis electron dot structure for HONO and indicate the electron-pair geometry around the O and N atoms. (b) HONO is a source of hydroxyl radicals, OH, in the atmosphere because enough energy is supplied by sunlight to break the N—O bond. Use the bond dissociation enthalpy of the N—O bond (Table 8.8) to calculate the wave-length of light that could cause HONO to dissociate to the radicals · NO and · OH.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Lewis electron dot structure for HONO has to be drawn and the electron pair geometry around oxygen and nitrogen atoms should be indicated.

Concept introduction:

Lewis structures are diagrams that represent the chemical bonding of covalently bonded molecules and coordination compounds.

It is also known as Lewis dot structures which represent the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.

Dots represent the electron position around the atoms and lines or dot pairs represent covalent bonds between atoms.

The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Explanation

The total number of valence electrons is found to be 18, where 1 electron, 6 electrons and 5electrons were contributed by each hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms respectively..

The remaining electrons getting after reducing two electrons for each bond from the total valence electron are distributed on terminal atoms to complete the octet.

Since the octets of nitrogen atom is not filled, a double bond is made between nitrogen and oxygen atoms

Lewis electron dot structure for the given compound HONO is,

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The wavelength of light that could cause the molecule to dissociate into the radical should be determined.

Concept introduction:

• The relation between energy, wavelength and frequency is,

E==hcλ

Where E is the energy, c the velocity of light and its value is 3×108m/s υandλ are the velocity and wavelength of light respectively.

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