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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Write electron configurations for each of the following.

a. Cr, Cr2+, Cr3+

b. Cu, Cu+, Cu2+

c. V, V2+, V3+

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The electron configuration of each given ion is to be stated.

Concept introduction: Valence electrons are filled in four principal orbitals according to the energy levels. The four orbitals are s, p, d and f .

The metals from group 3-12 are known as first row transition metals. The general form of valence electron configuration of these metals is,

[Nobelgas]nfxndynsz

When element lose an electron, a positive charge is accumulated on it whereas when an element gains an electron, negative charge is accumulated on it.

Explanation

Explanation

(a)

To write: The electron configuration of Cr,Cr2+ and Cr3+ .

Valence electrons are filled in four principal orbitals according to the energy levels. The four orbitals are s, p, d and f .

The metals from group 3-12 are known as first row transition metals.

When element lose an electron, a positive charge is accumulated on it, whereas when an element gains an electron, negative charge is accumulated on it.

Chromium is a group 6 element. The atomic number of Chromium (Cr) is 24 and its electronic configuration is,

[Ar]3d54s1

Chromium loses two electrons to acquire two positive charges and becomes Cr2+ . The electronic configuration of Cr2+ is,

Cr2+=Cr2e

Substitute the electron configuration of Cr in the above equation.

Cr2+=Cr2e=[Ar]3d54s12e=[Ar]3d4

Chromium loses three electrons to acquire three positive charges and becomes Cr3+ . The electronic configuration of Cr3+ is,

Cr3+=Cr3+3e

Substitute the electron configuration of Cr in the above equation.

Cr3+=Cr3e=[Ar]3d54s13e=[Ar]3d3

(b)

To write: The electron configuration of Cu,Cu+ and Cu2+ .

Copper is a group 11 element. The atomic number of Copper (Cu) is 29 and its electronic configuration is,

[Ar]3d104s1

Copper loses two electrons to acquire two positive charges and becomes Cu+ . The electronic configuration of Cu+ is,

Cu+=Cu1e

Substitute the electron configuration of Cu in the above equation

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