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General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918
Chapter 24, Problem 24.11EP
Textbook Problem
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How many phosphate groups are present in each of the molecules in Problem 24-9?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify the number of phosphate groups in fructose 6phosphate.

Concept introduction: Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down a glucose molecule and converts it into two pyruvate molecules along with the production of two ATP molecules and NADH coenzymes. The conversion of a glucose molecule to the pyruvate molecules is an oxidation process in which no molecular O2 is utilized.

The transfer of a phosphoryl group (PO32) is catalyzed by the kinase enzymes. In the glycolysis process, the phosphate group comes from ATP or some higher energetic phosphate molecules.

Explanation of Solution

The structure of fructose 6phosphate is as follows:

Here,

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify the number of phosphate groups in phosphoenolpyruvate.

Concept introduction: Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down a glucose molecule and converts it into two pyruvate molecules along with the production of two ATP molecules and NADH coenzymes. The conversion of a glucose molecule to the pyruvate molecules is an oxidation process in which no molecular O2 is utilized.

The transfer of a phosphoryl group (PO32) is catalyzed by the kinase enzymes. In the glycolysis process, the phosphate group comes from ATP or some higher energetic phosphate molecules.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify the number of phosphate groups in 3Phosphoglycerate.

Concept introduction: Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down a glucose molecule and converts it into two pyruvate molecules along with the production of two ATP molecules and NADH coenzymes. The conversion of a glucose molecule to the pyruvate molecules is an oxidation process in which no molecular O2 is utilized.

The transfer of a phosphoryl group (PO32) is catalyzed by the kinase enzymes. In the glycolysis process, the phosphate group comes from ATP or some higher energetic phosphate molecules.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To identify the number of phosphate groups in dihydroxyacetone phosphate.

Concept introduction: Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down a glucose molecule and converts it into two pyruvate molecules along with the production of two ATP molecules and NADH coenzymes. The conversion of a glucose molecule to the pyruvate molecules is an oxidation process in which no molecular O2 is utilized.

The transfer of a phosphoryl group (PO32) is catalyzed by the kinase enzymes. In the glycolysis process, the phosphate group comes from ATP or some higher energetic phosphate molecules.

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Chapter 24 Solutions

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry
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Ch. 24.2 - When one glucose molecule is processed through the...Ch. 24.2 - In what two steps of glycolysis is ATP converted...Ch. 24.3 - In the human body, under oxygen-rich and...Ch. 24.3 - In which of the following conversions is CO2...Ch. 24.3 - The major purpose of lactate fermentation is the...Ch. 24.3 - Which of the following processes involves the...Ch. 24.3 - Accumulation of which of the following substances...Ch. 24.4 - For the complete oxidation of a glucose molecule,...Ch. 24.4 - The net yield of ATP for the complete oxidation of...Ch. 24.4 - The net yield of ATP per glucose molecule in the...Ch. 24.5 - The process by which glucose is converted to...Ch. 24.5 - The intermediate glucose 1-phosphate is...Ch. 24.5 - Adding a glucose unit to a growing glycogen chain...Ch. 24.6 - When gluconcogenesis and glycolysis are compared...Ch. 24.6 - Which of the following intermediates is involved...Ch. 24.6 - In the process of gluconeogenesis, which of the...Ch. 24.6 - Which of the following statements about ATP...Ch. 24.6 - Which of the following substances are participants...Ch. 24.7 - Which of the following statements concerning...Ch. 24.7 - Which of the following pairs of processes are the...Ch. 24.8 - A major purpose of the first stage of the pentose...Ch. 24.8 - A major purpose of the second stage of the pentose...Ch. 24.8 - The pentose phosphate pathway when run to its...Ch. 24.9 - Which of the following hormones promotes the...Ch. 24.9 - Which of the following pairs of hormones increases...Ch. 24.10 - How many different B vitamins participate in the...Ch. 24.10 - Which of the following B-vitamin-containing...Ch. 24.10 - Which of the following B-vitamin-containing...Ch. 24 - Where does carbohydrate digestion begin in the...Ch. 24 - Very little digestion of carbohydrates occurs in...Ch. 24 - What is the primary site for carbohydrate...Ch. 24 - Where does the final step in carbohydrate...Ch. 24 - Where does the digestion of sucrose begin, and...Ch. 24 - Where does the digestion of lactose begin, and...Ch. 24 - Identify the three major monosaccharides produced...Ch. 24 - The various stages of carbohydrate digestion all...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following glycolysis...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following glycolysis...Ch. 24 - How many phosphate groups are present in each of...Ch. 24 - How many phosphate groups are present in each of...Ch. 24 - At which step in glycolysis is each of the...Ch. 24 - At which step in glycolysis is each of the...Ch. 24 - Characterize each of the following steps in...Ch. 24 - Characterize each of the following steps in...Ch. 24 - Of the 10 steps in glycolysis, how many of them a....Ch. 24 - Of the 10 steps in glycolysis, how many of them a....Ch. 24 - Replace the question mark in each of the following...Ch. 24 - Replace the question mark in each of the following...Ch. 24 - In which step of glycolysis does each of the...Ch. 24 - In which step of glycolysis does each of the...Ch. 24 - Galactose enters the glycolysis metabolic pathway...Ch. 24 - Fructose enters the glycolysis metabolic pathway...Ch. 24 - How does net ATP production from the processing of...Ch. 24 - How does net ATP production from the processing of...Ch. 24 - Why is the first step in glycolysis important in...Ch. 24 - Why is Step 3 of glycolysis called the commitment...Ch. 24 - At what location within a cell does glycolysis...Ch. 24 - Are the locations within a cell where glycolysis...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following molecules...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following molecules...Ch. 24 - Under what cellular conditions is pyruvate...Ch. 24 - Under what cellular conditions is pyruvate...Ch. 24 - What coenzyme(s) are needed to convert pyruvate to...Ch. 24 - What coenzyme(s) are needed to convert pyruvate to...Ch. 24 - At what location within a cell is pyruvate...Ch. 24 - At what location within a cell is pyruvate...Ch. 24 - What is the chemical purpose for lactate...Ch. 24 - Name two methods by which NAD+ supplies needed for...Ch. 24 - In ethanol fermentation a C3 pyruvate molecule is...Ch. 24 - In pyruvate oxidation a C3 pyruvate molecule is...Ch. 24 - What is the overall reaction equation for the...Ch. 24 - What is the overall reaction equation for the...Ch. 24 - With which of the possible fates of pyruvateacetyl...Ch. 24 - With which of the possible fates of pyruvateacetyl...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 24 - What is the relationship between cytosolic NADH...Ch. 24 - In the dihydroxyacetone phosphateglycerol...Ch. 24 - What is the cargo for glycerol 3-phosphate in the...Ch. 24 - What is the source of the cargo for glycerol...Ch. 24 - Contrast, in terms of ATP production, the...Ch. 24 - Contrast, in terms of ATP production, the...Ch. 24 - How many of the 30 ATP molecules produced from the...Ch. 24 - How many of the 30 ATP molecules produced from the...Ch. 24 - What is the initial reactant or reactants in the...Ch. 24 - What is the final product or products in the...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following substances...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following substances...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 24 - Characterize each of the following steps in...Ch. 24 - Characterize each of the following steps in...Ch. 24 - What is the difference between the processing of...Ch. 24 - The liver, but not the brain or muscle cells, has...Ch. 24 - In what form does glycogen enter the glycolysis...Ch. 24 - Explain why one more ATP is produced when glucose...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 24 - What are the starting reactants for the process of...Ch. 24 - What is the end product for the process of...Ch. 24 - Contrast the reactants in the first three steps of...Ch. 24 - Contrast the products in the last three steps of...Ch. 24 - In how many steps of gluconeogenesis and...Ch. 24 - In the processes of gluconeogenesis and...Ch. 24 - In which step in gluconeogenesis is a. a C3...Ch. 24 - In which step in gluconeogenesis is a. a C4...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 24 - Write an equation for the conversion of lactate to...Ch. 24 - Write an equation for the conversion of pyruvate...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following enzymes is...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following enzymes is...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 24 - How many different C3 molecules are involved in a....Ch. 24 - How many different C6 molecules are involved in a....Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 24 - Indicate in which of the four processes...Ch. 24 - Indicate in which of the four processes...Ch. 24 - Indicate in which of the four processes...Ch. 24 - Indicate in which of the four processes...Ch. 24 - What is the net gain or net loss in triphosphates...Ch. 24 - What is the net gain or net loss in triphosphates...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 24 - How many phosphate groups are present in the...Ch. 24 - How many phosphate groups are present in the...Ch. 24 - Write a general equation for the oxidative stage...Ch. 24 - Write a general equation for the entire pentose...Ch. 24 - What compound contains the carbon atom lost from...Ch. 24 - How many molecules of NADPH are produced per...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 24 - Indicate whether each of the following compounds...Ch. 24 - What effect does insulin have on glycogen...Ch. 24 - What effect does insulin have on blood-glucose...Ch. 24 - What effect does glucagon have on blood-glucose...Ch. 24 - What effect does glucagon have on glycogen...Ch. 24 - What organ is the source of insulin?Ch. 24 - What organ is the source of glucagon?Ch. 24 - The hormone epinephrine generates a second...Ch. 24 - What is the relationship between cAMP and the...Ch. 24 - Compare the target tissues for glucagon and...Ch. 24 - Compare the biological functions of glucagon and...Ch. 24 - For the B vitamins below, indicate which of the...Ch. 24 - For the B vitamins below, indicate which of the...

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