Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Binder Ready Version
Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Binder Ready Version
4th Edition
ISBN: 9781118431221
Author: Richard M. Felder, Ronald W. Rousseau, Lisa G. Bullard
Publisher: WILEY
Question
Chapter 4, Problem 4.1P
Interpretation Introduction

(a)

Interpretation:

If the given process is found as continuous, batch or semibatch and if it is in transient or steady state.

Concept introduction:

Any chemical process can be identified on the basis of its classification. The chemical processes are classified into following groups:

Batch processes:

In this process the feed is filled to the vessel in the beginning but later the contents are removed. During this process, no mass exchange is done between the system and surroundings.

Continuous processes:

In this process, the input and output flows throughout in the duration of the process.

Semibatch processes:

These processes are of those types which are neither batch process nor continuous.

Steady state:

Any process in which the values of variables like temperature, pressure, volume, flow rates etc. do not change with time except some minor fluctuations in content mean values, then the process is steady state.

Transient:

Any process, whose variable change with time is known as transient or unsteady-state process.

Expert Solution
Check Mark

Answer to Problem 4.1P

The process is continuous and transient.

Explanation of Solution

Given:

The volume of tank is 2.0m3 and the tank is initially half filled.

Water enters at a rate of 6kg/s and withdraws at a rate of 3kg/s.

In the given process, the water flows inside at a rate of 6kg/s and it withdraws at rate of 3kg/s which means that the process is continuous in which the input and output flows at continuous rate till the process ends.

Further, initially, the container was half filled but the for 1 second, 6kg water enters the system and 3 kg goes out which means that the volume of the container will keep changing and hence the process can not be steady-state.

Thus the process is transient in nature under which the variable changes with time.

Interpretation Introduction

(b)

Interpretation:

The mass balance for the given process has to be determined. The terms of the general balance should be identified in the obtained equation and reason should be given for omitting any term.

Concept introduction:

In any system, for any conserved quantity like total mass, mass of particular species, momentum, energy etc. the balance can be expressed as follows:

Input+generationoutputconsumption=Accumulation

Where, input is feed that enters through system boundary, generation is the content produced within system, output is the content which leaves the system and consumption is the feed consumed within the system while accumulation is the actual product build up in the system.

Expert Solution
Check Mark

Answer to Problem 4.1P

The mass balance for the given process is Inputoutput=Accumulation.

Where, input is the water coming inside the system and output is the water flowing out the system.

The terms generation and consumption are omitted because the process is continuous and there is no reaction.

Explanation of Solution

Given:

The volume of tank is 2.0m3 and the tank is initially half filled.

Water enters at a rate of 6kg/s and withdraws at a rate of 3kg/s.

Calculation:

As per the given problem:

The process is continuous for which there is no reaction and so, the generation is considered as zero. Here, the flow is continuous from the system so the output will also be considered to be the zero.

In this system, there is only the input and output of water without any reaction.

Since, no reaction so:

Generation=0,Accumulation=0

Putting the values, the equation becomes:

Input+generationoutputconsumption=AccumulationInput+0output0=AccumulationInputoutput=Accumulation

Hence, the mass balance is:

Inputoutput=Accumulation6kg/s3kg/s=Accumulation3kg/s=Accumulation

Hence, the balance is:

Accumulation=3kg/s

Interpretation Introduction

(c)

Interpretation:

How long will tank take to overflow?

Concept introduction:

In any system, for any conserved quantity like total mass, mass of particular species, momentum, energy etc. the balance can be expressed as follows:

Input+generationoutputconsumption=Accumulation

Where, input is feed that enters through system boundary, generation is the content produced within system, output is the content which leaves the system and consumption is the feed consumed within the system while accumulation is the actual product build up in the system.

Expert Solution
Check Mark

Answer to Problem 4.1P

The tank will start to overflow after 333sec.

Explanation of Solution

Given:

The volume of tank is 2.0m3 and the tank is initially half filled.

Water enters at a rate of 6kg/s and withdraws at a rate of 3kg/s.

Calculation:

The tank is half filled, so the content of tank is 1.0m3:

From the mass balance we have, Accumulation=3kg/s

Hence, the tank fills 3 kg in one second.

Now, the time taken to fill the tank with the volume is 1.0m3.

Density of water is 1000kg/m3.

Hence, the time required to fill the tank is:

t=1m3×1000kg1m3×1s3.0kg=333.3s

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Chapter 4 Solutions

Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Binder Ready Version

Ch. 4 - In the production of soybean oil, dried and flaked...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.12PCh. 4 - A process is carried out in which a mixture...Ch. 4 - Strawberries contain about 15wt% solids and 85wt%...Ch. 4 - Two streams flow into a 500-gallon tank. The first...Ch. 4 - A fuel distributor supplies four liquid fuels,...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.17PCh. 4 - One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture...Ch. 4 - L-Serine is an amino acid that often is provided...Ch. 4 - A 100 kmol/h stream that is 97 mole% carbon...Ch. 4 - A pharmaceutical product, P, is made in a batch...Ch. 4 - A liquid mixture containing ethanol (55.0 wt%) and...Ch. 4 - A stream of humid air containing 1.50 mole% H2O(v)...Ch. 4 - A liquid mixture contains 60.0 wt% ethanol (E),...Ch. 4 - Certain vegetables and fruits contain plant...Ch. 4 - Two aqueous sulfuric acid solutions containing...Ch. 4 - A paint mixture containing 25.0% of a pigment and...Ch. 4 - In the commercial production of sugar (sucrose),...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.29PCh. 4 - A garment to protect the wearer from toxic agents...Ch. 4 - A dilute aqueous solution of H2SO4 (Solution A) is...Ch. 4 - Gas streams containing hydrogen and nitrogen in...Ch. 4 - An artificial kidney is a device that removes...Ch. 4 - The indicator-dilution method is a technique used...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.35PCh. 4 - Gas absorption or gas scrubbing is a commonly used...Ch. 4 - The SO2 scrubbing tower described in Problem 4.36...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.38PCh. 4 - The hormone estrogen is produced in the ovaries of...Ch. 4 - A liquid mixture containing 30.0mole% benzene (B),...Ch. 4 - Seawater containing 3.50 wt% salt passes through a...Ch. 4 - Inside the column a liquid stream flows downward...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.43PCh. 4 - Effluents from metal-finishing plants have the...Ch. 4 - In an absorption tower (or absorber), a gas is...Ch. 4 - In the production of a bean oil, beans containing...Ch. 4 - Boilers are used in most chemical plants to...Ch. 4 - Following is a diagram of the shirt-cleaning...Ch. 4 - A drug (D) is produced in a three-stage extraction...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.52PCh. 4 - Ammonia is oxidized to nitric oxide in the...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.54PCh. 4 - A stream containing H2S and inert gases and a...Ch. 4 - 436. The reaction between ethylene and hydrogen...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.57PCh. 4 - Prob. 4.58PCh. 4 - Titanium dioxide (TiCb) is used extensively as a...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.60PCh. 4 - Prob. 4.61PCh. 4 - Oxygen consumed by a living organism in aerobic...Ch. 4 - A genetically engineered strain of Escherichia...Ch. 4 - The gas-phase reaction between methanol and acetic...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.65PCh. 4 - Prob. 4.66PCh. 4 - Methane and oxygen react in the presence of a...Ch. 4 - Ethane is chlorinated in a continuous reactor:...Ch. 4 - Ethanol can be produced commercially by the...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.70PCh. 4 - Solid calcium fluoride (CaF2) reacts with sulfuric...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.72PCh. 4 - Chlorobenzene (C^HsCl), an important solvent and...Ch. 4 - A catalytic reactor is used to produce...Ch. 4 - 4.7'6. Methanol is produced by reacting carbon...Ch. 4 - Methane reacts with chlorine to produce methyl...Ch. 4 - Ethylene oxide is produced by the catalytic...Ch. 4 - Methanol is synthesized from carbon monoxide and...Ch. 4 - The fresh feed to an ammonia production process...Ch. 4 - A gas contains 75.0 wt% methane. 10.0% ethane....Ch. 4 - Five liters of liquid n-hexane and 4 liters of...Ch. 4 - Gasoline, which we will represent as having the...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.87PCh. 4 - Natural gas containing a mixture of methane,...Ch. 4 - Propane is burned completely with excess oxygen....Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.91PCh. 4 - Prob. 4.92PCh. 4 - Liquid methanol is fed to a space heater at a rate...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.94PCh. 4 - Prob. 4.95PCh. 4 - A fuel oil is analyzed and found to contain 85.0...Ch. 4 - Prob. 4.97PCh. 4 - Prob. 4.98PCh. 4 - Prob. 4.99PCh. 4 - 4.1 (Mt. You have been sent by the Environmental...Ch. 4 - Fuel oils contain primarily organic compounds and...
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