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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

A mammalian nephron contains the:

a. Bowman’s capsule, which delivers the filtrate to the glomerulus.

b. Bowman’s capsule, which filters fluids, 99% of which will beexcreted.

c. proximal convoluted tubule, which moves Na+ and K+ into the filtrate of the interstitial fluids.

d. proximal convoluted tubule, which reabsorbs K+, Na+, Cl-, and H2O.

e. proximal convoluted tubule, which lacks microvilli to easefluid movement through it.

Summary Introduction

Introduction:

Nephrons are the functional and structural units of the kidney. They are made up of renal corpuscles and tubules. Each kidney in humans contains more than 1 million nephrons, which are differentiated into various regions and carry out consecutive steps in the process of excretion.

Explanation

Justification for the correct answer:

Option (d) is “PCT, which reabsorbs K+, Na+, Cl-, and water.” This is a true statement as the PCT is permeable to K+, Na+, Cl-, and water. K+ and Na+ ions get reabsorbed actively and Cl follows them, whereas water leaves by using the aquaporins. Hence, option (d) is correct.

Justifications for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) is “Bowman’s capsule, which delivers the filtrate to the glomerulus.” This is false as the nephron outlines the Bowman's capsule, the infolded area, which cups around the glomerulus. The capsule and the glomerulus are present in the renal cortex. When the blood runs through the glomerulus, the plasma passes through glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (b) is “Bowman’s capsule, which filters 99% of the substances that are excreted.” This is false as on an average, more than 99% of the glomerular filtrate water gets reabsorbed in nephrons, leaving more than 1 liter to be removed daily in the form of urine...

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