Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

The process by which cells undergo mitosis without a corresponding increase in cytoplasm is called:

a. polarity.

b. induction.

c. gastrulation.

d. organogenesis.

e. cleavage.

Summary Introduction


A zygote undergoes mitotic divisions to form an embryo. These divisions follow specific patterns. Mitosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of two daughter cells from a parent cell. The daughter cells formed have the same number and kind of nuclei. It is also called an equational type of cell division.


Justification/explanation for the correct answer:

Option (e) is cleavage. The process of cleavage is marked by the replication of DNA material without the production of new cytoplasm. This type of division results in the formation of smaller cells and the overall mass of the embryo does not increase. The cells produced are called blastomeres.

A blastula is formed, which is a spherical layer of cells after their rapid division. This blastula surrounds a yolk-filled cavity called blastocoels. The amount of yolk present in the cell results in two types of cleavage patterns. Holoblastic cleavage is the total cleavage that takes place in cells with a small amount of yolk, and meroblastic cleavage is the partial cleavage that takes place in cells with a lot of yolk. Hence, option (e) is correct.

Explanation for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) is polarity. Polarity is developed in an embryo because of unequal distribution of yolk. This divides the embryo into vegetal and animal pole...

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