A definition for coherent radiation needs to be explained. Concept Introduction : A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

BuyFind

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213
BuyFind

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213

Solutions

Chapter 6, Problem 6.1QAP

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

A definition for coherent radiation needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

Coherent radiation can be defined as the phases of two or more waves representing the radiation differ by a known constant.

Explanation of Solution

Coherent radiation can be defined as the period in which two or more waves representing radiation change with a known constant. Simultaneously, a consistent relationship between the phase of waves in a single frequency radiation beam. When the phase difference between the waves is constant, two beams of light coincide.

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for superposition principle needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

The net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.

Explanation of Solution

The superposition principle can be defined as the net response caused by two or more stimuli and is the sum of the responses that each stimulus can produce individually. This superposition principle is known as the superposition theorem and the superposition property. This can be matched with all linear systems.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for refractive index of a medium needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

The refractive index is a ratio of the speed of light in a medium relative to its speed in a vacuum.

Explanation of Solution

The refractive index is a ratio of the speed of light in a medium relative to its speed in a vacuum. This change in speed from one medium to another is what causes light rays to bend. The refractive index of any other medium is defined relative to the refractive index of a vacuum and it is equal to 1.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for normal dispersion of substance needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

Normal dispersion of a substance is defined as the ratio of refractive index to the wavelength of light.

Explanation of Solution

Normal dispersion of a substance is defined as the ratio of refractive index to the wavelength of light. Normal dispersion depends on refractive index and wavelength of light. 

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for anomalous dispersion needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

Anomalous dispersion is the dispersion of light in some refraction spectra in which the normal order of the separation of components is reversed in the vicinity of certain wavelengths.

Explanation of Solution

Anomalous dispersion is the dispersion of light in some refraction spectra in which the normal order of the separation of components is reversed in the vicinity of certain wavelengths. In the anomalous dispersion refractive, the index is decreased when frequency is increased.

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for work function of a substance needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The work function of a substance is defined as the minimum energy required to remove an electron from its surface.

(g)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for photoelectric effect needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

Photoelectric effect can be defined as the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, as light, of sufficiently high frequency by a surface, generally metallic, which induces the emission of electrons from the surface.

(h)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for ground scale of a molecule needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

The ground state of an atomic nucleus, atom, or molecule is its lowest energy state.

Explanation of Solution

The lowest energy state of an atomic nucleus, atom, or molecule can be defined as its ground state. Higher energy states are known as excited states. The ground state applies to any quantized property of a particle. The ground state of atoms and molecules are important, as are their excited states.

(i)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for electronic excitation needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

The work function of a substance is defined as the minimum energy required to remove an electron from its surface.

Explanation of Solution

Electrons can absorb energy from external sources, such as lasers, arc-discharge lamps, and tungsten-halogen bulbs, and be promoted to higher energy levels.

(j)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for fluorescence needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

Explanation of Solution

Fluorescence is the process in which the emission of light by a substance absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation. It is a form of luminescence. Usually, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore, lower energy than the absorbed radiation.

(k)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for phosphorescence needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

It is the emission of light by a substance after it absorbs energy from a form of electromagnetic radiation, such as visible light or X-rays. Unlike fluorescence, phosphorescence continues for a short while after the source of radiation is removed.

(l)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition for transmittance needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The transmittance is the ratio of the intensity of transmitted radiation to the intensity of incident radiation. It represents the amount of radiation absorbed by the sample.

(m)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition of absorptivity needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The absorptivity is the ratio of absorbance to the thickness or path length of a solution with the concentration of the absorbing species.

(n)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition of absorbance needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Answer to Problem 6.1QAP

The absorbance is a measure of the quantity of light absorbed by a sample.

Explanation of Solution

Absorbance can be known as the amount of light absorbed by a sample. It is also named as optical density, extinction, or decadic absorbance.

(o)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition of vibrational relaxation needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

Vibrational relaxation is the process in which a vibrationally excited species loses its vibrational energy which results in a lower energy state. There is no change in the electronic state.

(p)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The definition of stokes shift needs to be explained.

Concept Introduction :

A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

Stokes shift is the difference in photon frequency between the absorption of a photon by some molecule, and the emission of a photon as that molecule returns to its ground state. A Stokes shift occurs in solids.

Want to see more full solutions like this?

Subscribe now to access step-by-step solutions to millions of textbook problems written by subject matter experts!

Want to see more full solutions like this?

Subscribe now to access step-by-step solutions to millions of textbook problems written by subject matter experts!