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Chapter 9.2, Problem 4LO

Define counterbalancing and explain how it is used to minimize or eliminate threats to internal validity from time-related factors.

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To the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the reasonableness of total itemized deductions depends on the taxpayerâ€™s adjusted gross income.Â Large deductions, which include charity and medical deductions, are more reasonable for taxpayers with large adjusted gross incomes.Â If a taxpayer claims larger than average itemized deductions for a given level of income, the chances of an IRS audit are increased.Â Data (in thousands of dollars) on Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) and the Reasonable Amount of Itemized Deductions (RAID) are as follows:
AGIÂ :Â 22,Â 27,Â 32,Â 48,Â 65,Â 85,Â 120
RAIDÂ :Â 9.6,Â 9.6,Â 10.1,Â 11.1,Â 13.5,Â 17.7,Â 25.5
The correct interpretation of the meaning of each of the coefficients in the linear model is:
Â
a.
When AGI is zero, the RAID is $4680 in this linear model.Â Since x = 0 is not included in the sample values of the independent variable, this interpretation cannot be a meaningful one.Â For every one thousand dollar of the AGI, the RAID increases by $161 in this linear model.â€¦

To the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the reasonableness of total itemized deductions depends on the taxpayerâ€™s adjusted gross income.Â Large deductions, which include charity and medical deductions, are more reasonable for taxpayers with large adjusted gross incomes.Â If a taxpayer claims larger than average itemized deductions for a given level of income, the chances of an IRS audit are increased.Â Data (in thousands of dollars) on Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) and the Reasonable Amount of Itemized Deductions (RAID) are as follows:
Â
AGIÂ :Â 22,Â 27,Â 32,Â 48,Â 65,Â 85,Â 120
RAIDÂ :Â 9.6,Â 9.6,Â 10.1,Â 11.1,Â 13.5,Â 17.7,Â 25.5
Â
Examine the attached printout and answer the following questions.
Â
The correct interpretation of the meaning of each of the coefficients in the linear model is:
Â
Â
a.
When AGI is zero, the RAID is $4680 in this linear model.Â Since x = 0 is not included in the sample values of the independent variable, this interpretation cannot be a meaningful one.Â For every oneâ€¦

Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)

6th Edition

ISBN: 9781337613316

Author: Frederick J Gravetter, Lori-Ann B. Forzano

Publisher: Cengage Learning

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Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)

Experimental Designs: Within-subjects Design. 4LO

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## Chapter 9 Solutions

Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)

Ch. 9.1 - Describe the general characteristics of a...Ch. 9.1 - Describe how time-related factors such as history,...Ch. 9.2 - For a within-subjects experiment, explain how the...Ch. 9.2 - Define counterbalancing and explain how it is used...Ch. 9.2 - Describe the limitations of counterbalancing and...Ch. 9.3 - Explain the general advantages and disadvantages...Ch. 9.3 - Define a matched-subject design and explain how it...Ch. 9.4 - Describe the different ways that within-subjects...Ch. 9 - In addition to the key words, you should also be...Ch. 9 - Describe the characteristics of a within-subjects...

Ch. 9 - Time-related factors and order effects can...Ch. 9 - For a within-subjects experiment that includes a...Ch. 9 - Under what circumstances is it advisable to switch...Ch. 9 - Describe the circumstances in which...Ch. 9 - Explain why partial counterbalancing is sometimes...Ch. 9 - Describe the problems that can be caused by...Ch. 9 - A researcher has a sample of 30 rats that are all...Ch. 9 - Explain how a matched-subjects design attempts to...Ch. 9 - Describe the disadvantages of a multiple-treatment...Ch. 9 - At the beginning of this chapter, we described a...

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