Diabetes : A Metabolic Disorder

1705 WordsJan 15, 20167 Pages
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic high blood sugar levels. It is caused by an absolute or functional deficiency of circulating insulin, resulting in an inability to transfer glucose from the bloodstream into tissues where it is needed as fuel (Ahmed, Laing and Yates 2011). The disruption in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins interferes with the secretion or action of insulin, which plays a vital role in the metabolism and utilization of energy from the nutrients especially carbohydrates. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and secreted in the gastrointestinal tract in the response to high blood sugar levels after ingestion of a substance (REFERENCE). The…show more content…
Diabetes can be diagnosed and monitored by either a random or fasting blood sugar test, oral glucose tolerance test and using HBA1c. The oral glucose tolerance test, which is considered as a gold standard, has proven to be more useful, especially in clarifying the diagnosis and considering impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycaemia (Blann, 2013). In addition, it may also be diagnosed by noticeable symptoms which arise from high blood sugar. These includes polyuria (urination), polydipsia (thirst) and weight loss (despite adequate consumption of food), visual disturbances and at times frequent recurrent infection and exhaustion (REFERENCES). Where there is presence or absence of symptoms known as asymptomatic, the clinician will then request for a urine sample to check for the presence of glucose and a fasting plasma glucose level in your blood to confirm a clear diagnosis.The finger prick test is an appropriate test for all patients, it has been approved and backed up by the national quality assurance scheme. It enables health professionals to carry out finger-prick Hb/c tests by matching the results found in the laboratory to the quality assurance results. Laboratory venous HbA1c must be done to confirm the finger prick test in an accredited laboratory. The table below shows the summaries the 2006 WHO recommendations for the diagnostic criteria for Diabetes
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