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**To find:**

a) Earth’s circumference in kilometers.

b) Earth’s surface area in square kilometers.

c) Earth’s volume in cubic kilometers.

## Answer to Problem 1P

**Solution:**

a) Earth’s circumference is

b) Earth’s surface area is

c) Earth’s volume is

### Explanation of Solution

**Given:**

Radius of the earth:

**Calculations:**

a) The circumference of sphere is

So, the circumference of Earth

But, 1 km = 1000 m.

Therefore, the circumference of the Earth is

b) The Surface area of sphere =

So, the surface area of Earth =

=

=

But,

Therefore, the surface area of the Earth is

c) Volume of sphere =

So, the volume of Earth

But,

Therefore, the volume of the Earth is

**Conclusion:**

Using the formula for the circumference of the sphere, we can find the earth’s circumference in meters and convert it in kilometers. So, the answer in km is

Using the formula for the surface area of the sphere, we can find the Earth’s surface area and convert this from square meters to square kilometers. So the surface area of the Earth is

And finally, using the formula for the volume of the sphere, we can find the volume of the Earth in cube meters and convert it into cube kilometers. So the volume of the earth in cube kilometer is

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# Chapter 1 Solutions

FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS - EXTENDED

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*arrow_forward*What is the ratio of the surface area to the volume (a) for the 1 m sphere (b) for the 2 m sphere (c) for the 3 m sphere? A) (a) 1/3 (b) 2/3 (c) 1 B) (a) 3 (b) 1.5 (c) 1 C) (a) 1 (b) 1.5 (c) 3 D) (a) 1 (b) 2/3 (c) 1/3*arrow_forward*One cubic centimeter (10 cm3) of water has a mass of 1.0 x 10-3 kg. (a) Determine the mass of 1.0 m3 of water. Assuming that biological substances are 98% water, estimate the masses of (b) a cell with a diameter of 10 µm, (c) a human kidney, and (d) a fly Take a kidney to be roughly a sphere with a radius of 4.0 cm and a fir to be roughly a cylinder 4.0 mm long and 2.0 mm in diameter.*arrow_forward* - We are going to make a simple approximation of the number of atoms in the universe. Assume all the atoms in the universe are hydrogen. (In actual practice, over 75% of the atoms in the universe are hydrogen.) Assume the sun is a typical star (made of pure hydrogen) has a density of 1.4 g/cm3 and is a sphere with a radius of 7.0*108m Assume that there are 100 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy that are identical to our sun. Assume that there are 10 billion galaxies in the universe identical to our Milky Way galaxy. How many atoms are there in the universe?
*arrow_forward*the average density of an atom is approximately 103 kg/m3. The nucleus of an atom has a radius about 10-5 times that of the entire atom, and contains nearly all the mass of the atom. What is the approximate density, in kilograms per cubic meter, of a nucleus?*arrow_forward*Consider a rectangle with a measured width of ? = 9.6 ± 0.3 cm and a length of ? = 30.2 ± 0.7 cm.What is the perimeter of this rectangle? What is the area of this rectangle?*arrow_forward*

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