   # Consider the following aqueous solutions: (i) 0.20 m HOCH 2 CH 2 OH (nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte); (ii) 0.10 m CaCl 2 (iii) 0.12 m KBr; and (iv) 0.12 m Na 2 SO 4 . (a) Which solution has the highest boiling point? (b) Which solution has the lowest freezing point? (c) Which solution has the highest water vapor pressure? ### Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section ### Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 13, Problem 62GQ
Textbook Problem
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## Consider the following aqueous solutions:(i) 0.20 m HOCH2CH2OH (nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte); (ii) 0.10 m CaCl2 (iii) 0.12 m KBr; and (iv) 0.12 m Na2SO4. (a) Which solution has the highest boiling point? (b) Which solution has the lowest freezing point? (c) Which solution has the highest water vapor pressure?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The aqueous solution with highest boiling point has to be determined from the given aqueous solutions.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

• Decrease in the vapor pressure
• Increase in the boiling point
• Decline in the boiling point
• Osmotic pressure

Decline in the boiling point is huge when solute is an electrolyte than when solute is nonelectrolyte.

van’t Hoff factor, i: it is the ration between change in in boiling point measured and change in in boiling point calculated. It indicates the total number of ions that are produced.

### Explanation of Solution

Colligative properties are the properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it.

Boiling point of a solution increases with the increase in concentration of the solute in solution.

• HOCH2CH2OH is a non-volatile, non-electrolyte solute and hence i=1. So total concentration is 0.20m
• CaCl2 is completely dissolved and produces 3 ions and hence i=3. So total concentration is 0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The aqueous solution with lowest freezing point has to be determined from the given aqueous solutions.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

• Decrease in the vapor pressure
• Increase in the boiling point
• Decline in the boiling point
• Osmotic pressure

Decline in the boiling point is huge when solute is an electrolyte than when solute is nonelectrolyte.

van’t Hoff factor, i: it is the ration between change in in boiling point measured and change in in boiling point calculated. It indicates the total number of ions that are produced.

Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one kilogram of solvent.

Molality (m) =Numberofmolesofsolute1kgofsolvent

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The aqueous solution with highest vapor pressure has to be determined from the given aqueous solutions.

Concept introduction:

Colligative properties: Properties of solutions which having influence on the concentration of the solute in it. Colligative properties are,

• Decrease in the vapor pressure
• Increase in the boiling point
• Decline in the boiling point
• Osmotic pressure

Decline in the boiling point is huge when solute is an electrolyte than when solute is nonelectrolyte.

van’t Hoff factor, i: it is the ration between change in in boiling point measured and change in in boiling point calculated. It indicates the total number of ions that are produced.

Molality (m): Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one kilogram of solvent.

Molality (m) =Numberofmolesofsolute1kgofsolvent

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