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General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918

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General, Organic, and Biological C...

7th Edition
H. Stephen Stoker
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285853918
Chapter 16, Problem 16.70EP
Textbook Problem
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Classify each of the following substances as (1) a salt of a monocarboxylic acid or (2) a salt of a dicarboxylic acid.

a. Potassium ethanoate

b. Magnesium acetate

c. Sodium succinate

d. Calcium butanedioate

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given substance has to be classified as salt of monocarboxylic acid or a salt of dicarboxylic acid.

Concept Introduction:

The name of the carboxylic acid itself implies that it is acidic.  Addition of carboxylic acid to water results in ionization.  Hydrogen ion transfer occurs from carboxylic acid to water and hydronium ion is formed.  Carboxylate ion is also formed due to the loss of hydrogen ion from carboxylic acid.

Carboxylate ion is the negative ion which is formed when one or more acidic protons are lost from carboxylic acid.  Similar to carboxylic acid it reacts with strong base to form carboxylic acid salt and water.

If the negative ion contains two carboxylate groups in it then it is a dicarboxylate.  The parent acid of this has to be dicarboxylic acid.  If the negative ion contains one carboxylate group in it then it is a monocarboxylate.  The parent acid of this has to be monocarboxylic acid.

This can also be found from the name of the salt given.  If the IUPAC name contains suffix “-ate” alone means it is a salt of monocarboxylic acid.  If the IUPAC name contains prefix “di-” that is preceded by “-ate” in the ending means it is a salt dicarboxylic acid.

Explanation of Solution

Given compound name is potassium ethanoate.  The structure of potassium ethanoate can be given as shown below,

From the name of the given salt, the name ends with suffix “-ate” that does not have the prefix “di-”...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given substance has to be classified as salt of monocarboxylic acid or a salt of dicarboxylic acid.

Concept Introduction:

The name of the carboxylic acid itself implies that it is acidic.  Addition of carboxylic acid to water results in ionization.  Hydrogen ion transfer occurs from carboxylic acid to water and hydronium ion is formed.  Carboxylate ion is also formed due to the loss of hydrogen ion from carboxylic acid.

Carboxylate ion is the negative ion which is formed when one or more acidic protons are lost from carboxylic acid.  Similar to carboxylic acid it reacts with strong base to form carboxylic acid salt and water.

If the negative ion contains two carboxylate groups in it then it is a dicarboxylate.  The parent acid of this has to be dicarboxylic acid.  If the negative ion contains one carboxylate group in it then it is a monocarboxylate.  The parent acid of this has to be monocarboxylic acid.

This can also be found from the name of the salt given.  If the IUPAC name contains suffix “-ate” alone means it is a salt of monocarboxylic acid.  If the IUPAC name contains prefix “di-” that is preceded by “-ate” in the ending means it is a salt dicarboxylic acid.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given substance has to be classified as salt of monocarboxylic acid or a salt of dicarboxylic acid.

Concept Introduction:

The name of the carboxylic acid itself implies that it is acidic.  Addition of carboxylic acid to water results in ionization.  Hydrogen ion transfer occurs from carboxylic acid to water and hydronium ion is formed.  Carboxylate ion is also formed due to the loss of hydrogen ion from carboxylic acid.

Carboxylate ion is the negative ion which is formed when one or more acidic protons are lost from carboxylic acid.  Similar to carboxylic acid it reacts with strong base to form carboxylic acid salt and water.

If the negative ion contains two carboxylate groups in it then it is a dicarboxylate.  The parent acid of this has to be dicarboxylic acid.  If the negative ion contains one carboxylate group in it then it is a monocarboxylate.  The parent acid of this has to be monocarboxylic acid.

This can also be found from the name of the salt given.  If the IUPAC name contains suffix “-ate” alone means it is a salt of monocarboxylic acid.  If the IUPAC name contains prefix “di-” that is preceded by “-ate” in the ending means it is a salt dicarboxylic acid.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given substance has to be classified as salt of monocarboxylic acid or a salt of dicarboxylic acid.

Concept Introduction:

The name of the carboxylic acid itself implies that it is acidic.  Addition of carboxylic acid to water results in ionization.  Hydrogen ion transfer occurs from carboxylic acid to water and hydronium ion is formed.  Carboxylate ion is also formed due to the loss of hydrogen ion from carboxylic acid.

Carboxylate ion is the negative ion which is formed when one or more acidic protons are lost from carboxylic acid.  Similar to carboxylic acid it reacts with strong base to form carboxylic acid salt and water.

If the negative ion contains two carboxylate groups in it then it is a dicarboxylate.  The parent acid of this has to be dicarboxylic acid.  If the negative ion contains one carboxylate group in it then it is a monocarboxylate.  The parent acid of this has to be monocarboxylic acid.

This can also be found from the name of the salt given.  If the IUPAC name contains suffix “-ate” alone means it is a salt of monocarboxylic acid.  If the IUPAC name contains prefix “di-” that is preceded by “-ate” in the ending means it is a salt dicarboxylic acid.

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Chapter 16 Solutions

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry
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Ch. 16.3 - The common names for the C2 mono- and dicarboxylic...Ch. 16.3 - The common name for the C4 unbranched dicarboxylic...Ch. 16.3 - In which of the following pairs of carboxylic...Ch. 16.4 - Which of the following acids is a hydroxy acid? a....Ch. 16.4 - Which of the following acids is a keto acid? a....Ch. 16.4 - Which of the following structural statements about...Ch. 16.5 - At room temperature, unsubstituted saturated...Ch. 16.5 - Carboxylic acid molecules readily hydrogen-bond to...Ch. 16.5 - When compared to alcohols of similar molecular...Ch. 16.6 - Which of the following types of compounds cannot...Ch. 16.6 - Aromatic carboxylic acids are prepared via...Ch. 16.7 - Which of the following statements about acid...Ch. 16.7 - Which of the following statements about...Ch. 16.7 - Carboxylate ions are named by dropping the -ic...Ch. 16.8 - Which of the following substances would react with...Ch. 16.8 - Carboxylic acid salts may be converted back to...Ch. 16.8 - Several carboxylic acid salts are used as a. food...Ch. 16.8 - The IUPAC name for the propanoic acid salt is a....Ch. 16.9 - The small inorganic molecule produced in a...Ch. 16.9 - The organic product produced when the molecule...Ch. 16.10 - An ester is a carboxylic acid derivative in which...Ch. 16.10 - How many carbon atoms are present in the structure...Ch. 16.11 - Esters are produced through a condensation...Ch. 16.11 - The parent acid for the ester molecule is a(n) a....Ch. 16.11 - Which of the following is an incorrect...Ch. 16.12 - IUPAC ester nomenclature is very similar to that...Ch. 16.12 - The IUPAC name for the ester is a. ethyl methyl...Ch. 16.12 - The IUPAC name for the ester formed when butanoic...Ch. 16.12 - The common name for the ester whose IUPAC name is...Ch. 16.13 - Small changes in the structures of esters can...Ch. 16.13 - Which of the following is an ester of salicylic...Ch. 16.14 - Esters can be functional group isomers with which...Ch. 16.14 - Which of the following is not a positional isomer...Ch. 16.14 - Which of the following is a functional group...Ch. 16.15 - What is the physical state of all...Ch. 16.15 - Theoretically, how many hydrogen bonds can an...Ch. 16.15 - How many hydrogen bonds can an ester molecule form...Ch. 16.16 - In ester hydrolysis under acidic conditions, the...Ch. 16.16 - In ester saponification, the reaction products are...Ch. 16.16 - In ester hydrolysis the bond within the ester that...Ch. 16.17 - Which of the following is the general structural...Ch. 16.17 - Acetyl coenzyme A, the most important naturally...Ch. 16.18 - Most commonly, the monomers for the formation of a...Ch. 16.18 - The monomers in a polyester are linked to each...Ch. 16.18 - Monomers for PET, the best-known polyester now...Ch. 16.19 - Preparation of an acid chloride from its parent...Ch. 16.19 - Which of the following statements concerning acid...Ch. 16.19 - Hydrolysis of an acid anhydride produces a. two...Ch. 16.19 - Which of the following reactions would not be...Ch. 16.20 - The most important inorganic esters, from a...Ch. 16.20 - How many oxygen atoms are present in a molecule of...Ch. 16.20 - How many acidic hydrogen atoms are present in a...Ch. 16.20 - The chemical formula for a phosphoryl group a....Ch. 16 - In which of the following compounds is a carboxyl...Ch. 16 - In which of the following compounds is a carboxyl...Ch. 16 - Indicate whether or not each of the compounds in...Ch. 16 - Indicate whether or not each of the compounds in...Ch. 16 - Write the general structural formula for each of...Ch. 16 - Write the general structural formula for the...Ch. 16 - For each of the following types of compounds, all...Ch. 16 - For each of the following type of compounds, all...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the compounds in Problem 16-7 as...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the compounds in Problem 16-8 as...Ch. 16 - Which of the designations carboxyl group present,...Ch. 16 - Which of the designations carboxyl group present,...Ch. 16 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 16 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula that...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula that...Ch. 16 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula that...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula that...Ch. 16 - What is the common name for each of the following...Ch. 16 - What is the common name for each of the following...Ch. 16 - How many carbon atoms are present in each of the...Ch. 16 - How many carbon atoms are present in each of the...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula, using the...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula, using the...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula, using the...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula, using the...Ch. 16 - Each of the following acids contains an additional...Ch. 16 - Each of the following acids contains an additional...Ch. 16 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the acids in...Ch. 16 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the acids in...Ch. 16 - Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 16 - Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the following carboxylic acids as...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the following carboxylic acids as...Ch. 16 - Indicate whether each of the following unbranched...Ch. 16 - Indicate whether each of the following unbranched...Ch. 16 - Determine the maximum number of hydrogen bonds...Ch. 16 - Determine the maximum number of hydrogen bonds...Ch. 16 - What is the physical state (solid, liquid, or gas)...Ch. 16 - What is the physical state (solid, liquid, or gas)...Ch. 16 - Draw a structural formula for the carboxylic acid...Ch. 16 - Draw a structural formula for the carboxylic acid...Ch. 16 - How many acidic hydrogen atoms are present in each...Ch. 16 - How many acidic hydrogen atoms are present in each...Ch. 16 - What is the charge on the carboxylate ion formed...Ch. 16 - What is the charge on the carboxylate ion formed...Ch. 16 - What is the name of the carboxylate ion that forms...Ch. 16 - What is the name of the carboxylate ion that forms...Ch. 16 - Write a chemical equation for the formation of...Ch. 16 - Write a chemical equation for the formation of...Ch. 16 - Draw structural formulas for the following...Ch. 16 - Draw structural formulas for the following...Ch. 16 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Give the IUPAC name for each of the following...Ch. 16 - Give the common name for each of the carboxylic...Ch. 16 - Give the common name for each of the carboxylic...Ch. 16 - Write a chemical equation for the preparation of...Ch. 16 - Write a chemical equation for the preparation of...Ch. 16 - Write a chemical equation for the conversion of...Ch. 16 - Write a chemical equation for the conversion of...Ch. 16 - What is an antimicrobial?Ch. 16 - Which three carboxylic acids have salts that are...Ch. 16 - Which carboxylic acid has salts that are used to...Ch. 16 - Which carboxylic acid has salts that are used to...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the following substances as (1) a...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the following substances as (1) a...Ch. 16 - How many ions are present in one formula unit of...Ch. 16 - How many ions are present in one formula unit of...Ch. 16 - What small inorganic molecule is always a product...Ch. 16 - A prerequisite for a decarboxylation reaction is...Ch. 16 - Draw the structures of the organic compounds...Ch. 16 - Draw the structures of the organic compounds...Ch. 16 - Characterize an ester functional group in terms of...Ch. 16 - Give two linear notations for designating the...Ch. 16 - Which of the following structures represent...Ch. 16 - Which of the following structures represent...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the following substances as (1)...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the following substances as (1)...Ch. 16 - Draw the structure of the ester produced from the...Ch. 16 - Draw the structure of the ester produced from the...Ch. 16 - For each of the following esters, draw the...Ch. 16 - For each of the following esters, draw the...Ch. 16 - What are lactones, and by what chemical reaction...Ch. 16 - What is the difference between a -lactone and a...Ch. 16 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 16 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 16 - Assign common names to each of the esters in...Ch. 16 - Assign common names to each of the esters in...Ch. 16 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 16 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 16 - Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 16 - Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 16 - Assign IUPAC names to the esters that are produced...Ch. 16 - Assign IUPAC names to the esters that are produced...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the following compounds as (1) an...Ch. 16 - Classify each of the following compounds as (1) an...Ch. 16 - How many carbon atoms are present in a molecule of...Ch. 16 - How many carbon atoms are present in a molecule of...Ch. 16 - With the help of Table 16-4, identify the flavor...Ch. 16 - With the help of Table 16-4, identify the flavor...Ch. 16 - Structurally contrast the ester flavoring agents...Ch. 16 - Structurally contrast the ester flavoring agents...Ch. 16 - How does the structure of aspirin differ from that...Ch. 16 - How does the structure of oil of wintergreen...Ch. 16 - Why is the lactone nepetalactone, present in the...Ch. 16 - What is the original source of the large-ring...Ch. 16 - Give IUPAC names for the four isomeric C5...Ch. 16 - Give IUPAC names for the eight isomeric C6...Ch. 16 - Give IUPAC names for the four isomeric methyl...Ch. 16 - Give IUPAC names for the two isomeric ethyl esters...Ch. 16 - How many esters exist that are isomeric with...Ch. 16 - How many esters exist that are isomeric with...Ch. 16 - Draw condensed structural formulas for all...Ch. 16 - Draw condensed structural formulas for all...Ch. 16 - The general molecular formula for an alkane is...Ch. 16 - How does the general molecular formula for an...Ch. 16 - What is the maximum number of hydrogen bonds that...Ch. 16 - What is the maximum number of hydrogen bonds that...Ch. 16 - With the help of Figure 16-15, determine the...Ch. 16 - With the help of Figure 16-15, determine the...Ch. 16 - Write the structural formulas of the reaction...Ch. 16 - Write the structural formulas of the reaction...Ch. 16 - Write the structural formulas of the reaction...Ch. 16 - Write the structural formulas of the reaction...Ch. 16 - What are the IUPAC names of the products formed...Ch. 16 - What are the IUPAC names of the products formed...Ch. 16 - What are the IUPAC names of the products formed...Ch. 16 - What are the IUPAC names of the products formed...Ch. 16 - Draw structures of the reaction products in the...Ch. 16 - Draw structures of the reaction products in the...Ch. 16 - Draw the structures of the thioesters formed as a...Ch. 16 - Draw the structures of the thioesters formed as a...Ch. 16 - Draw the structural formula for each of the...Ch. 16 - Draw the structural formula for each of the...Ch. 16 - Write the structure (two repeating units) of the...Ch. 16 - Write the structure (two repeating units) of the...Ch. 16 - Draw the structural formulas of the monomers...Ch. 16 - Draw the structural formulas of the monomers...Ch. 16 - What are the names of the monomers used to produce...Ch. 16 - What are the names of the monomers used to produce...Ch. 16 - Draw the condensed structural formula for each of...Ch. 16 - Draw the condensed structural formula for each of...Ch. 16 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 16 - Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula for the...Ch. 16 - Draw a condensed structural formula for the...Ch. 16 - Draw the condensed structural formulas for the...Ch. 16 - Draw the condensed structural formulas for the...Ch. 16 - What is the IUPAC name for the acyl group present...Ch. 16 - What is the IUPAC name for the acyl group present...Ch. 16 - In general terms, what are the products obtained...Ch. 16 - In general terms, what are the products obtained...Ch. 16 - Draw the structures of the esters formed by...Ch. 16 - Draw the structures of the esters formed by...Ch. 16 - Draw the generalized structure for each of the...Ch. 16 - Draw the generalized structure for each of the...Ch. 16 - What is a phosphoryl group?Ch. 16 - What is a phosphorylation reaction?Ch. 16 - Draw structural formulas (ionic form) for the...Ch. 16 - Draw structural formulas (ionic form) for the...

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