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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 16, Problem 68PS
Textbook Problem
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Sodium carbonate is a diprotic base. Write a chemical equilibrium expression for each of the two successive base reactions with water.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The chemical equilibrium expression for each of the two successive base reactions of sodium carbonate with water has to be written.

Concept introduction:

Polyprotic bases:

Can accept more than on proton (H+). So, it can react with water many times to produce many hydroxide ions (OH).

Diprotic bases:

Can accept two protons.

Example: Sulphate ion SO4(aq)2-

Explanation of Solution

Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 dissociates into sodium Na+ and carbonate CO32- ions.

Chemical equation for the first step of carbonate ion is

First Ionization

CO32- + H2OHCO3- + OH-

Equilibrium constant:

Kb1[OH][HCO3-

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Chapter 16 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 16.3 - 3. Which of the following has a pKa value of...Ch. 16.3 - 4. What is the pK2 for the conjugate acid of...Ch. 16.3 - Ka for lactic acid, CH3CHOHCO2H, is 1.4 x 104....Ch. 16.4 - For each of the following salts in water, predict...Ch. 16.4 - 1. Adding NaH2PO4 to water will cause the pH...Ch. 16.4 - 2. Adding KCN to water will cause the pH...Ch. 16.5 - (a) Which is the stronger Bronsted acid, HCO3 or...Ch. 16.5 - 1. Is the reaction of NaCN and HCI in water...Ch. 16.5 - 2. In the following reaction, does the equilibrium...Ch. 16.6 - Equal amounts (moles) of HCl(aq) and NaCN(aq) are...Ch. 16.6 - 2. Equal amounts (moles) of acetic acid(aq) and...Ch. 16.6 - Equal amounts (moles) of NaOH(aq) and NaH2PO4(aq)...Ch. 16.7 - A solution prepared from 0.055 mol of butanoic...Ch. 16.7 - What are the equilibrium concentrations of acetic...Ch. 16.7 - What are the equilibrium concentrations of HF, F...Ch. 16.7 - The weak base, CIO (hypochlorite ion), is used in...Ch. 16.7 - Calculate the pH after mixing 15 mL of 0.12 M...Ch. 16.7 - 1. What is [H3O+] in a 0.10 M solution of HCN at...Ch. 16.7 - 2. A 0.040 M solution of an acid, HA, has a pH of...Ch. 16.7 - What are the pH and ion concentrations in a...Ch. 16.7 - 4. You mix 0.40 g of NaOH with 100 mL of 0.10 M...Ch. 16.7 - If a fatal does of atropine is 100. mg. what...Ch. 16.7 - When atropine is added to sulfuric acid, a proton...Ch. 16.7 - The pKa, of the conjugate acid of atropine is...Ch. 16.8 - What is the pH of a 0.10 M solution of oxalic...Ch. 16.8 - Hydrazine (N2H4) is like CO32 in that it is a...Ch. 16.9 - Which of the following is the stronger acid? (a)...Ch. 16.9 - Which of the following should be the stronger...Ch. 16.9 - 3. Which of the following should be the stronger...Ch. 16.10 - 1. Which of the following can act as a Lewis acid?...Ch. 16.10 - 2. The molecule whose structure is illustrated...Ch. 16.10 - Convert the pK values to K values for the...Ch. 16.10 - Other solvents also undergo autoionization. (a)...Ch. 16.10 - Write an equation for the reaction of the amide...Ch. 16.10 - Will a solution of HClO4 in glacial acetic acid be...Ch. 16.10 - To measure the relative strengths of bases...Ch. 16 - Write the formula and the give the name of the...Ch. 16 - Write the formula and give the name of the...Ch. 16 - What are the products of each of the following...Ch. 16 - What are the products of each of the following...Ch. 16 - Write balanced equations showing how the hydrogen...Ch. 16 - Write a balanced equation showing how the HPO42...Ch. 16 - In each of the following acid-base reactions,...Ch. 16 - In each of the following acid-base reactions,...Ch. 16 - An aqueous solution has a pH of 3.75. What is the...Ch. 16 - A saturated solution of milk of magnesia. Mg(OH)2,...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a 0.0075 M solution of HCl? What...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a 1.2 104 M solution of KOH?...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a 0.0015 M solution of Ba(OH)2?Ch. 16 - The pH of a solution of Ba(OH)2 is 10.66 at 25 ....Ch. 16 - Several acids are listed here with their...Ch. 16 - Several acids are listed here with their...Ch. 16 - Which of the following ions or compounds has the...Ch. 16 - Which of the following compounds or ions has the...Ch. 16 - Which of the following compounds or ions has the...Ch. 16 - Which of the following compounds or ion has the...Ch. 16 - Dissolving K2CO3 in water gives a basic solution....Ch. 16 - Dissolving ammonium bromide in water gives an...Ch. 16 - If each of the salts listed here were dissolved in...Ch. 16 - Which of the following common food additives gives...Ch. 16 - A weak acid has a Ka of 6.5 105 What is the value...Ch. 16 - If Ka for weak acid is 2.4 1011, what is the...Ch. 16 - Epinephrine hydrochloride has pKa value of 9.53....Ch. 16 - An organic acid has pKa = 8.95. What is its Ka...Ch. 16 - Which is the stronger of the following two acids?...Ch. 16 - Which is the stronger of the following two acids?...Ch. 16 - Chloroacetic acid (ClCH2CO2H) has Ka = 1.41 103....Ch. 16 - A weak base has Kb = 1.5 109. What is the value...Ch. 16 - The trimethylammonium ion, (CH3)3NH+, is the...Ch. 16 - The chromium(III) ion in water, [Cr(H2O)6]3+. Is a...Ch. 16 - Acetic acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3,...Ch. 16 - Ammonium chloride and sodium dihydrogen phosphate,...Ch. 16 - For each of the following reactions, predict...Ch. 16 - For each of the following reactions, predict...Ch. 16 - Equal molar quantities of sodium hydroxide and...Ch. 16 - Equal molar quantities of hydrochloric acid and...Ch. 16 - Equal molar quantities of acetic acid and sodium...Ch. 16 - Equal molar quantities of ammonia and sodium...Ch. 16 - A 0.015 M solution of hydrogen cyanate, HOCN, has...Ch. 16 - A 0.10 M solution of chloroacetic acid, CICH2CO2H,...Ch. 16 - A 0.025 M solution of hydroxyl amine has a pH of...Ch. 16 - Methylamine, CH3NH2, is a weak base. CH3NH2(aq) +...Ch. 16 - A 2.5 103 M solution of an unknown acid has a pH...Ch. 16 - A 0.015M solution of a base has a pH of 10.09 a)...Ch. 16 - What are the equilibrium concentrations of...Ch. 16 - The ionizations constant of a very weak acid, HA...Ch. 16 - What are the equilibrium concentration of H3O+, CN...Ch. 16 - Phenol (C6H5OH) commonly called carbolic acid is a...Ch. 16 - What are the equilibrium concentrations of...Ch. 16 - A hypothetical weak base has Kb=5.0104.Calculate...Ch. 16 - The weak base methylamine, CH3NH2, has Kb=4.2104....Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a 0.12 M aqueous solution of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a 0.0010 M aqueous solution of...Ch. 16 - A solution of hydrofluoric acid, HF, has a pH of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the hydronium ion concentration and pH...Ch. 16 - Calculate the hydronium ion concentration and pH...Ch. 16 - Sodium cyanide is the salt of the weak acid HCN....Ch. 16 - The sodium salt of propionic acid, NaCH3CH2CO2 is...Ch. 16 - Calculate the hydronium ion concentration and pH...Ch. 16 - Calculate the hydronium ion concentration and the...Ch. 16 - For each of the following cases, decide whether...Ch. 16 - For each of the following cases, decide whether...Ch. 16 - Oxalic acid, H2C2O4, is a diprotic acid. Write a...Ch. 16 - Sodium carbonate is a diprotic base. Write a...Ch. 16 - Prove that Ka1 Kb2 = Kw for oxalic acid H2C2O4,...Ch. 16 - Prove that Ka3 Kb1 = Kw for phosphoric acid,...Ch. 16 - Sulphurous acid, H2SO3, is a weak acid capable of...Ch. 16 - Ascorbic acid (vitamin C, C6H8O6) is a diprotic...Ch. 16 - Hydrazine, N2H4, can interact with water in two...Ch. 16 - Ethylene diamine, H2NCH2CH2NH2, can interact with...Ch. 16 - Which should be stronger acid, HOCN or HCN?...Ch. 16 - Which should be the stronger Brnsted acid,...Ch. 16 - Explain why benzene sulfonic acid is a Brnsted...Ch. 16 - The structure of ethylene diamine is illustrated...Ch. 16 - Decide whether each of the following substances...Ch. 16 - Decide whether each of the following substances...Ch. 16 - Carbon monoxide forms complexes with low-valent...Ch. 16 - Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is a common reagent. It...Ch. 16 - About this time, you may be wishing you had an...Ch. 16 - Consider the following ions: NH4+, CO32, Br, S2,...Ch. 16 - A 2.50 g sample of a solid that could be Ba(OH)2...Ch. 16 - In a particular solution, acetic acid is 11%...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen, H2S, and sodium acetate, NaCH3CO2 are...Ch. 16 - For each of the following reactions predict...Ch. 16 - A monoprotic acid HX has Ka = 1.3 103. Calculate...Ch. 16 - Arrange the following 0.10M solutions in order of...Ch. 16 - m-Nitrophenol, a weak acid, can be used as a pH...Ch. 16 - The butylammonium ion, C4H9NH3+, has a Ka of 2.3 ...Ch. 16 - The local anaesthetic novocaine is the hydrogen...Ch. 16 - Pyridine is weak organic base and readily forms a...Ch. 16 - The base ethylamine (CH3CH2NH2) has a Kb of. A...Ch. 16 - Chloroacetic acid, ClCH2CO2H, is a moderately weak...Ch. 16 - Saccharin (HC7H4NO3S) is a weak acid with pKa =...Ch. 16 - Given the following solutions: (a) 0.1 M NH3 (b)...Ch. 16 - For each of the following salts, predict whether a...Ch. 16 - Nicotine, C10H14N2, has two basic nitrogen atoms...Ch. 16 - Oxalic acid is a relatively weak diprotic acid....Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant for the reaction of...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium constant for the reaction of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of the solution that results from...Ch. 16 - To what volume should 1.00 102 mL of any weak...Ch. 16 - The hydrogen phthalate ion, C8HsO4, is a weak acid...Ch. 16 - You prepare a 0.10 M solution of oxalic acid,...Ch. 16 - You mix 30 0 mL of 0.15 M NaOH with 30.0 mL of...Ch. 16 - Describe an experiment that will allow you to...Ch. 16 - The data below compare the strength of acetic acid...Ch. 16 - You have three solutions labeled A, B, and C. You...Ch. 16 - A hydrogen atom in the organic base pyridine,...Ch. 16 - Nicotinic acid, C6H5NO2, is found in minute...Ch. 16 - Equilibrium constants can be measured for the...Ch. 16 - Sulfanilic acid, which is used in making dyes, is...Ch. 16 - Amino acids are an important group of compounds....Ch. 16 - How can water be both a Brnsied base and a Lewis...Ch. 16 - The nickel(II) ion exists as [Ni(H2O)4]2+ in...Ch. 16 - The halogens form three stable, weak acids, HOX....Ch. 16 - The acidity of the oxoacids was described in...Ch. 16 - Perchloric acid behaves as an acid, even when it...Ch. 16 - You purchase a bottle of water. On checking its...Ch. 16 - Iodine, I2, is much more soluble in an aqueous...Ch. 16 - Uracil is a base found in RNA Indicate sites in...Ch. 16 - Chemists often refer to the decree of ionization...Ch. 16 - Consider a salt of a weak base and a weak acid...

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