menu
bartleby
search
close search
Hit Return to see all results
close solutoin list

Mercury vapor is dangerous because breathing it brings this toxic element into the lungs. We wish to estimate the vapor pressure of mercury at two different temperatures from the following data: Estimate the temperature at which K p for the process Hg( ℓ ) ⇄ Hg(g) is equal to 1.00 (and the vapor pressure of Hg is 1.00 bar). Next, estimate the temperature at which the vapor pressure is (1/760) bar. (Experimental vapor pressures are 1.00 mm Hg at 126.2 °C and 1.00 bar at 356.6 °C.) ( Note: The temperature at which P = 1.00 bar can be calculated from thermodynamic data. To find the other temperature, you will need to use the temperature for P = 1.00 bar and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in Section 11.6.)

BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 18, Problem 67SCQ
Textbook Problem
16 views

Mercury vapor is dangerous because breathing it brings this toxic element into the lungs. We wish to estimate the vapor pressure of mercury at two different temperatures from the following data:

Chapter 18, Problem 67SCQ, Mercury vapor is dangerous because breathing it brings this toxic element into the lungs. We wish to

Estimate the temperature at which Kp for the process Hg() ⇄ Hg(g) is equal to 1.00 (and the vapor pressure of Hg is 1.00 bar). Next, estimate the temperature at which the vapor pressure is (1/760) bar. (Experimental vapor pressures are 1.00 mm Hg at 126.2 °C and 1.00 bar at 356.6 °C.) (Note: The temperature at which P = 1.00 bar can be calculated from thermodynamic data. To find the other temperature, you will need to use the temperature for P = 1.00 bar and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in Section 11.6.)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The temperature at which equilibrium constant for the given reaction is one and the temperature at which vapor pressure is 1760 bar should be estimated. The temperature used for P=1bar should be identified.

Concept introduction:

The vapor pressure of a substance is related to its enthalpy of vaporisation by the

expression,

  ln(p2p1)=ΔHvapR(1T1-1T2)

Here, p1 and p2 are the vapour pressures at two different temperatures T1 and T2.

This equation is known as Clausius-Clapeyron equation and is used to estimate the vapor pressure of a substance at a particular temperature.

Explanation of Solution

The temperature at which equilibrium constant for the given reaction is one and the temperature at which vapor pressure is 1760 bar is calculated below.

Given:

The given reaction is,

  Hg(l)Hg(g)

At any temperature, Kp= pHg(g)

So, the value of Kp is one when pHg(g) is 1 bar.

Now,

ΔGo=ΔHo-TΔSo

The value of ΔfH° is,

ΔfH°=(61.38-0)kJ/mol-rxn= 61.38 kJ/mol-rxn.

The value of ΔrS° is,

ΔrS°=(174.97-76.02)J/K×mol-rxn=98.95 J/K×mol-rxn.

At equilibrium, ΔGo is zero

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 18.4 - Without looking up their standard entropies in...Ch. 18.4 - Without doing any calculations, predict the sign...Ch. 18.4 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C....Ch. 18.5 - Based on rH and rS, predict the spontaneity of the...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate S(universe) for the following reaction...Ch. 18.5 - 3. If rH° = +467.9 kJ/mol-rxn and rS° = +560.7 J/K...Ch. 18.6 - For a reaction to be spontaneous, rG will be...Ch. 18.6 - A reaction for which rG 0 is (a) product-favored...Ch. 18.7 - Using values of fH and S to find rH and rS,...Ch. 18.7 - Calculate the standard free energy change for the...Ch. 18.7 - Oxygen was first prepared by Joseph Priestley...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of rG for the reaction C(s) +...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 18.7 - Nitrogen and oxygen can react to form nitrogen...Ch. 18.7 - 1. Given that H° = −2219 kJ/mol-rxn and that rS° =...Ch. 18.7 - 2. Using values of rG°, determine the value of rG°...Ch. 18.7 - 3. The value of Kp for the following reaction at...Ch. 18.7 - Consider the hydrolysis reactions of creatine...Ch. 18.7 - Assume the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) C(aq) +...Ch. 18.A - The decomposition of diamond to graphite...Ch. 18.A - It has been demonstrated that buckminsterfullerene...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) dry...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) a...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 Cl2(g) SiCl4(g)...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 H2(g) SiH4(g)...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the decomposition of 1...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the formation of 1 mol...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - For the reaction BaCO3(s) BaO(s) + CO2(g), rG =...Ch. 18 - For the reaction TiCl2(s) + Cl2(g) TiCl4(), rG =...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Heating some metal carbonates, among them...Ch. 18 - Calculate rH and rS for the reaction of tin(IV)...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - For the synthesis of ammonia from its elements at...Ch. 18 - For the decomposition of solid calcium carbonate...Ch. 18 - Compare the compounds in each set below and decide...Ch. 18 - Using standard entropy values, calculate rS for...Ch. 18 - About 5 billion kilograms of benzene, C6H6, are...Ch. 18 - Hydrogenation, the addition of hydrogen to an...Ch. 18 - Is the combustion of ethane, C2H6, product-favored...Ch. 18 - Write a balanced equation that depicts the...Ch. 18 - When vapors from hydrochloric acid and aqueous...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(system), S(surroundings), and...Ch. 18 - Methanol is now widely used as a fuel in race...Ch. 18 - The enthalpy of vaporization of liquid diethyl...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change, rS, for the...Ch. 18 - Using thermodynamic data, estimate the normal...Ch. 18 - The following reaction is reactant-favored at...Ch. 18 - When calcium carbonate is heated strongly, CO2 gas...Ch. 18 - Sodium reacts violently with water according to...Ch. 18 - Yeast can produce ethanol by the fermentation of...Ch. 18 - Elemental boron, in the form of thin fibers, can...Ch. 18 - Estimate the vapor pressure of ethanol at 37 C...Ch. 18 - The equilibrium constant, Kp, for N2O4(g) 2...Ch. 18 - Estimate the boiling point of water in Denver,...Ch. 18 - The equilibrium constant for the butane ...Ch. 18 - A crucial reaction for the production of synthetic...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG for the decomposition of sulfur...Ch. 18 - Methanol can be made by partial oxidation of...Ch. 18 - A cave in Mexico was recently discovered to have...Ch. 18 - Wet limestone is used to scrub SO2 gas from the...Ch. 18 - Sulfur undergoes a phase transition between 80 and...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change for dissolving HCl...Ch. 18 - Some metal oxides can be decomposed to the metal...Ch. 18 - Copper(II) oxide, CuO, can be reduced to copper...Ch. 18 - Calculate fG for HI(g) at 350 C, given the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 18 - Titanium(IV) oxide is converted to titanium...Ch. 18 - Cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] is a...Ch. 18 - Mercury vapor is dangerous because breathing it...Ch. 18 - Explain why each of the following statements is...Ch. 18 - Decide whether each of the following statements is...Ch. 18 - Under what conditions is the entropy of a pure...Ch. 18 - In Chapter 13, you learned that entropy, as well...Ch. 18 - Consider the formation of NO(g) from its elements....Ch. 18 - Write a chemical equation for the oxidation of...Ch. 18 - The normal melting point of benzene, C6H6, is 5.5...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard molar entropy change, rS,...Ch. 18 - For each of the following processes, predict the...Ch. 18 - Heater Meals are food packages that contain their...Ch. 18 - Use values of fG for solid and gaseous iodine at...Ch. 18 - Oxygen dissolved in water can cause corrosion in...Ch. 18 - The formation of diamond from graphite is a...Ch. 18 - Iodine, I2, dissolves readily in carbon...Ch. 18 - Write an equation for the reaction of Fe2O3(s) and...Ch. 18 - Write an equation for the decomposition of 1.0 mol...Ch. 18 - Consider the reaction of NO and Cl2 to produce...Ch. 18 - Two processes that can be used to generate...Ch. 18 - Hydrogen and methane are two possible replacements...Ch. 18 - The Haber-Bosch process for the production of...Ch. 18 - Muscle cells need energy to contract. One...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
Outline the foods you will eat (including quantities) that will provide the recommended RDA for calcium. List l...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

The smallest unit of any substance is the _____. a. atom b. molecule c. cell

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List)

A 500-N uniform rectangular sign 4.00 m wide and 3.00 m high is suspended from a horizontal, 6.00-m-long, unifo...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)