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Decide whether each of the following statements is true or false. If false, rewrite it to make it true. (a) The entropy of a substance increases on going from the liquid to the vapor state at any temperature. (b) An exothermic reaction will always be spontaneous. (c) Reactions with a positive Δ r H ° and a positive Δ r S ° can never be product-favored. (d) If Δ r G ° for a reaction is negative, the reaction will have an equilibrium constant greater than 1.

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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 18, Problem 69SCQ
Textbook Problem
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Decide whether each of the following statements is true or false. If false, rewrite it to make it true.

  1. (a) The entropy of a substance increases on going from the liquid to the vapor state at any temperature.
  2. (b) An exothermic reaction will always be spontaneous.
  3. (c) Reactions with a positive ΔrH° and a positive ΔrS° can never be product-favored.
  4. (d) If ΔrG° for a reaction is negative, the reaction will have an equilibrium constant greater than 1.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be determined whether the given statements are true or false.

Concept introduction:

Spontaneous reactions are referred to those that have negative free energy formation. The spontaneous reactions favors the product formation. The expression is,

  ΔrGorHo-TΔrSo

The value of ΔrGo should be negative.

The reactions can be classified as exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions. Exothermic reactions are those in which heat is liberated and have negative enthalpy change whereas the endothermic reactions are those in which heat is absorbed.

Explanation of Solution

Reasons for the correct statements

Entropy increases in the order solid < liquid < gas.  In the gaseous state, the particles are more random. In solids, the particles have fixed positions and entropy is less. In liquids, there are constraints due to forces between the particles. Thus, the given statement (a) is true.

If ΔrGo for a reaction is negative, the reaction will have equilibrium constant greater than 1. The ΔrGo is related to the equilibrium constant Kp by the equation,

ΔrGo= -RTlnKp

The rearranged expression is,

Kp= e-ΔrGoRT

Thus, if the sign of ΔrGo is negative, the magnitude of Kp will be greater than 1. Thus, the given statement (d) is true.

Reason for the incorrect statements

An exothermic reaction is not necessary to be always spontaneous. The spontaneity of any reaction is decided by the sign of ΔGo

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 18.4 - Without looking up their standard entropies in...Ch. 18.4 - Without doing any calculations, predict the sign...Ch. 18.4 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C....Ch. 18.5 - Based on rH and rS, predict the spontaneity of the...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate S(universe) for the following reaction...Ch. 18.5 - 3. If rH° = +467.9 kJ/mol-rxn and rS° = +560.7 J/K...Ch. 18.6 - For a reaction to be spontaneous, rG will be...Ch. 18.6 - A reaction for which rG 0 is (a) product-favored...Ch. 18.7 - Using values of fH and S to find rH and rS,...Ch. 18.7 - Calculate the standard free energy change for the...Ch. 18.7 - Oxygen was first prepared by Joseph Priestley...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of rG for the reaction C(s) +...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 18.7 - Nitrogen and oxygen can react to form nitrogen...Ch. 18.7 - 1. Given that H° = −2219 kJ/mol-rxn and that rS° =...Ch. 18.7 - 2. Using values of rG°, determine the value of rG°...Ch. 18.7 - 3. The value of Kp for the following reaction at...Ch. 18.7 - Consider the hydrolysis reactions of creatine...Ch. 18.7 - Assume the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) C(aq) +...Ch. 18.A - The decomposition of diamond to graphite...Ch. 18.A - It has been demonstrated that buckminsterfullerene...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) dry...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? 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