menu
bartleby
search
close search
Hit Return to see all results
close solutoin list

Muscle cells need energy to contract. One biochemical pathway for energy transfer is the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate in a process called glycolysis . In the presence of sufficient oxygen in the cell, pyruvate is oxidized to CO 2 and H 2 O to make further energy available. However, under extreme conditions not enough oxygen can be supplied to the cells, so muscle cells produce lactate ion according to the reaction where Δ r G °′ = −25.1 kJ/mol. In living cells, the pH value is about 7. The hydronium ion concentration is constant and is included in Δ G °, which is then called Δ r G °′ ( Applying Chemical Principles 18.1 Thermodynamics and Living Things ). ( This problem is taken from the problems for the 36th International Chemistry Olympiad for high school students held in Kiel Germany in 2004 .) (a) Calculate Δ r G ° for the reaction at 25 °C. (b) Calculate the equilibrium constant K ′ . (The hydronium ion concentration is included in the constant. That is, K′ = K · [H 2 O + | for the reaction at 25 °C and pH = 7.0.) (c) Δ r G ° is the free energy change under standard conditions; that is, the concentrations of all reactants (except H 3 O + are 1.00 mol/L. Calculate Δ r G ° at 25 °C, assuming the following concentrations in the cell: pyruvate, 380 μ mol/L; NADH, 50 μ mol/L; lactate ion, 3700 μ mol/L; and NAD + ion, 540 μ mol/L.

BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 18, Problem 88SCQ
Textbook Problem
253 views

Muscle cells need energy to contract. One biochemical pathway for energy transfer is the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate in a process called glycolysis. In the presence of sufficient oxygen in the cell, pyruvate is oxidized to CO2 and H2O to make further energy available. However, under extreme conditions not enough oxygen can be supplied to the cells, so muscle cells produce lactate ion according to the reaction

Chapter 18, Problem 88SCQ, Muscle cells need energy to contract. One biochemical pathway for energy transfer is the breakdown

where ΔrG°′ = −25.1 kJ/mol. In living cells, the pH value is about 7. The hydronium ion concentration is constant and is included in ΔG°, which is then called ΔrG°′ (Applying Chemical Principles 18.1 Thermodynamics and Living Things). (This problem is taken from the problems for the 36th International Chemistry Olympiad for high school students held in Kiel Germany in 2004.)

  1. (a) Calculate ΔrG° for the reaction at 25 °C.
  2. (b) Calculate the equilibrium constant K. (The hydronium ion concentration is included in the constant. That is, K′ = K · [H2O+| for the reaction at 25 °C and pH = 7.0.)
  3. (c) ΔrG° is the free energy change under standard conditions; that is, the concentrations of all reactants (except H3O+ are 1.00 mol/L. Calculate ΔrG° at 25 °C, assuming the following concentrations in the cell: pyruvate, 380 μmol/L; NADH, 50 μmol/L; lactate ion, 3700 μmol/L; and NAD+ ion, 540 μmol/L.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ΔrGo for given reaction should be calculated.

Concept introduction:

The cells in our body requires energy to do its function. This energy is provided by the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate. The process is known as glycolysis. Pyruvate generated gives CO2 and H2O in presence of oxygen. However, if the oxygen supply is limited then lactate formation takes place. The reaction is written as,

    pyruvate+NADH+H+      lactatedehydrogenaselactate+NAD+

Explanation of Solution

The ΔrGo for the process of conversion of pyruvate to lactate is calculated below.

Given:

The value of ΔrGo is 25.1 kJ/mol.

The pH of the living cell is 7 and it is related to hydrogen ion concentration by the formula,

  pH=log[H+]7=log[H+]

Thus,

  [H+]=1×107

ΔrGo is related to the ΔrGo by the expression,

  ΔrGo'rGo+2

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The K' for the given reaction should be calculated.

Concept introduction:

The cells in our body requires energy to do its function. This energy is provided by the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate. The process is known as glycolysis. Pyruvate generated gives CO2 and H2O in presence of oxygen. However, if the oxygen supply is limited then lactate formation takes place. The reaction is written as,

    pyruvate+NADH+H+      lactatedehydrogenaselactate+NAD+

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ΔrG' for the given reaction under given temperature conditions should be calculated.

Concept introduction:

The cells in our body requires energy to do its function. This energy is provided by the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate. The process is known as glycolysis. Pyruvate generated gives CO2 and H2O in presence of oxygen. However, if the oxygen supply is limited then lactate formation takes place. The reaction is written as,

    pyruvate+NADH+H+      lactatedehydrogenaselactate+NAD+

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 18.4 - Without looking up their standard entropies in...Ch. 18.4 - Without doing any calculations, predict the sign...Ch. 18.4 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C....Ch. 18.5 - Based on rH and rS, predict the spontaneity of the...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate S(universe) for the following reaction...Ch. 18.5 - 3. If rH° = +467.9 kJ/mol-rxn and rS° = +560.7 J/K...Ch. 18.6 - For a reaction to be spontaneous, rG will be...Ch. 18.6 - A reaction for which rG 0 is (a) product-favored...Ch. 18.7 - Using values of fH and S to find rH and rS,...Ch. 18.7 - Calculate the standard free energy change for the...Ch. 18.7 - Oxygen was first prepared by Joseph Priestley...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of rG for the reaction C(s) +...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 18.7 - Nitrogen and oxygen can react to form nitrogen...Ch. 18.7 - 1. Given that H° = −2219 kJ/mol-rxn and that rS° =...Ch. 18.7 - 2. Using values of rG°, determine the value of rG°...Ch. 18.7 - 3. The value of Kp for the following reaction at...Ch. 18.7 - Consider the hydrolysis reactions of creatine...Ch. 18.7 - Assume the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) C(aq) +...Ch. 18.A - The decomposition of diamond to graphite...Ch. 18.A - It has been demonstrated that buckminsterfullerene...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) dry...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) a...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 Cl2(g) SiCl4(g)...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 H2(g) SiH4(g)...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the decomposition of 1...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the formation of 1 mol...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - For the reaction BaCO3(s) BaO(s) + CO2(g), rG =...Ch. 18 - For the reaction TiCl2(s) + Cl2(g) TiCl4(), rG =...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Heating some metal carbonates, among them...Ch. 18 - Calculate rH and rS for the reaction of tin(IV)...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - For the synthesis of ammonia from its elements at...Ch. 18 - For the decomposition of solid calcium carbonate...Ch. 18 - Compare the compounds in each set below and decide...Ch. 18 - Using standard entropy values, calculate rS for...Ch. 18 - About 5 billion kilograms of benzene, C6H6, are...Ch. 18 - Hydrogenation, the addition of hydrogen to an...Ch. 18 - Is the combustion of ethane, C2H6, product-favored...Ch. 18 - Write a balanced equation that depicts the...Ch. 18 - When vapors from hydrochloric acid and aqueous...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(system), S(surroundings), and...Ch. 18 - Methanol is now widely used as a fuel in race...Ch. 18 - The enthalpy of vaporization of liquid diethyl...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change, rS, for the...Ch. 18 - Using thermodynamic data, estimate the normal...Ch. 18 - The following reaction is reactant-favored at...Ch. 18 - When calcium carbonate is heated strongly, CO2 gas...Ch. 18 - Sodium reacts violently with water according to...Ch. 18 - Yeast can produce ethanol by the fermentation of...Ch. 18 - Elemental boron, in the form of thin fibers, can...Ch. 18 - Estimate the vapor pressure of ethanol at 37 C...Ch. 18 - The equilibrium constant, Kp, for N2O4(g) 2...Ch. 18 - Estimate the boiling point of water in Denver,...Ch. 18 - The equilibrium constant for the butane ...Ch. 18 - A crucial reaction for the production of synthetic...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG for the decomposition of sulfur...Ch. 18 - Methanol can be made by partial oxidation of...Ch. 18 - A cave in Mexico was recently discovered to have...Ch. 18 - Wet limestone is used to scrub SO2 gas from the...Ch. 18 - Sulfur undergoes a phase transition between 80 and...Ch. 18 - Calculate the entropy change for dissolving HCl...Ch. 18 - Some metal oxides can be decomposed to the metal...Ch. 18 - Copper(II) oxide, CuO, can be reduced to copper...Ch. 18 - Calculate fG for HI(g) at 350 C, given the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the equilibrium constant for the...Ch. 18 - Titanium(IV) oxide is converted to titanium...Ch. 18 - Cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] is a...Ch. 18 - Mercury vapor is dangerous because breathing it...Ch. 18 - Explain why each of the following statements is...Ch. 18 - Decide whether each of the following statements is...Ch. 18 - Under what conditions is the entropy of a pure...Ch. 18 - In Chapter 13, you learned that entropy, as well...Ch. 18 - Consider the formation of NO(g) from its elements....Ch. 18 - Write a chemical equation for the oxidation of...Ch. 18 - The normal melting point of benzene, C6H6, is 5.5...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard molar entropy change, rS,...Ch. 18 - For each of the following processes, predict the...Ch. 18 - Heater Meals are food packages that contain their...Ch. 18 - Use values of fG for solid and gaseous iodine at...Ch. 18 - Oxygen dissolved in water can cause corrosion in...Ch. 18 - The formation of diamond from graphite is a...Ch. 18 - Iodine, I2, dissolves readily in carbon...Ch. 18 - Write an equation for the reaction of Fe2O3(s) and...Ch. 18 - Write an equation for the decomposition of 1.0 mol...Ch. 18 - Consider the reaction of NO and Cl2 to produce...Ch. 18 - Two processes that can be used to generate...Ch. 18 - Hydrogen and methane are two possible replacements...Ch. 18 - The Haber-Bosch process for the production of...Ch. 18 - Muscle cells need energy to contract. One...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
Recommendations about carbohydrate intake can seem to be contradictory. On one hand, it is recommended that the...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Why is there a mass-luminosity relation?

Horizons: Exploring the Universe (MindTap Course List)

What are sister chromatids?

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)

A car of mass m moving at a speed v1 collides and couples with the back of a truck of mass 2m moving initially ...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Classify the amines from Question 76 as primary, secondary, or tertiary.

Introductory Chemistry: An Active Learning Approach

What is a meteorological tide?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin