9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097




9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Define and give an example of each of the following.

a. roasting

b. smelting

c. flotation

d. leaching

e. gangue

What are the advantages and disadvantages of hydrometallurgy? Describe the process by which a metal is purified by zone refining.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The definition and example of given terms, advantages and disadvantages of hydrometallurgy and the process of zone refining is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The process of extraction of metals from their ores and that too in pure form is called metallurgy. For the conversion of metal sulphide or oxide into metal, the ore needs to be reduced either using physical, chemical or electrical methods.





To determine: The definition and example of roasting..

The process in which a sulphide ore is heated in the presence of oxygen at high temperature is called roasting. Roasting is a method of purification of metal. In this process, the metal sulphide is converted to metal oxide. The roasting of ZnS occurs as,



To determine: The definition and example of smelting.

The process that involves the extraction of base metal from its ore by the reduction process is known as smelting. Smelting is used for the extraction of different metals like Copper, Iron, Silver and many more. A reducing agent is used for the decomposition of the ore and this removes the slag and the metal base is left behind. The smelting of zinc oxide is done as,



To determine: The definition and example of flotation.

The process used for the separation and concentration of ores by the alteration of their surface is called flotation. In this process, the ore is converted to slurry by dissolving it in water and the minerals are made hydrophobic by the use of collector chemicals or by using surfactants. The nature of mineral decides the type of collector that is to be used. The slurry consisits of both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles which is then poured into a tank and the air is blown into it. The oil particles that are hydrophobic , they get attached to the bubbles of air and rise to the surface from where they can be easily removed.


To determine: The definition and example of leaching.

The leaching is a process of extraction of solid by their dissolution in a liquid. Leaching is used to convert the metals into their soluble salts in an aqueous medium and thus, is used as an important extractive technique in metallurgy. For example the extraction of gold by cyanide ion from its ore is done as,



To determine: The definition and example of gangue

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