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Insect-Assisted Fertilization in Moss Moss sperm can swim, but plant ecologist Nils Cronberg suspected that they sometimes hitch a ride on crawling insects or mites (tiny animals related to spiders). To test this hypothesis he carried out an experiment. He placed patches of male and female moss gametophytes in dishes, either next to one another or with water-absorbing plaster between them. The plaster prevented sperm from Swimming between plants. He then looked at how the presence or absence of insects affected the number of sporophytes formed. FIGURE 22.8 shows his results. FIGURE 22.8 Sporophyte production in female moss patches with and without either crawling insects (springtails) or mites. No Sporophytes formed in the animal-free dishes when moss patches were 2 or 4 centimeters apart Why is sporophyte formation a good way to determine if fertilization occurred?

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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337408332

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337408332
Chapter 22, Problem 1DAA
Textbook Problem
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Insect-Assisted Fertilization in Moss Moss sperm can swim, but plant ecologist Nils Cronberg suspected that they sometimes hitch a ride on crawling insects or mites (tiny animals related to spiders). To test this hypothesis he carried out an experiment. He placed patches of male and female moss gametophytes in dishes, either next to one another or with water-absorbing plaster between them. The plaster prevented sperm from Swimming between plants. He then looked at how the presence or absence of insects affected the number of sporophytes formed. FIGURE 22.8 shows his results.

Chapter 22, Problem 1DAA, Insect-Assisted Fertilization in Moss Moss sperm can swim, but plant ecologist Nils Cronberg

FIGURE 22.8 Sporophyte production in female moss patches with and without either crawling insects (springtails) or mites. No Sporophytes formed in the animal-free dishes when moss patches were 2 or 4 centimeters apart

Why is sporophyte formation a good way to determine if fertilization occurred?

Summary Introduction

To determine: The chemical that was produced in the greatest amount and its stimulus.

Concept introduction: Secondary metabolites are produced as metabolic intermediate or product but they are not essential for growth. They play a role in reinforcement of tissues for example cellulose, suberin, lignin; protection, and serve as attractants for pollinators. They contribute in plant’s ability to compete and survive. Volatile compounds are such secondary metabolites produced by plants. They attract insects for pollination as well as provide defensive signaling systems against pests and diseases.

Answer to Problem 1DAA

Correct answer: The chemical β-Caryophyllene was produced in greatest amount in response to the treatment with budworms and thrips.

Explanation of Solution

As given in the problem statement, the researchers studied the production of different volatile chemicals by tobacco plants in response to predation by insects- western flower thrips and tobacco budworms.

Refer Fig. 30.19, “Volatile (airborne) compounds produced by tobacco plants in response to predation by different insects” in the textbook. It shows the results of volatile compounds produced (ng/ day) in untreated plants (C), plants that are mechanically wounded (W), attacked by thrips (T), mechanically wounded and attacked by thrips (WT), attacked by budworms (HV), or attacked by budworms and thrips (HVT). When tobacco plants were treated with budworms and thrips (HVT), the chemical β-Caryophyllene was produced that was measured as 6,166 ng/ day. This was the highest amount of chemical produced among all the treatments.

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