   Chapter 34, Problem 3PE

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

(a) Estimate the mass of the luminous matter in the known universe, given there are 1011 galaxies, each containing 1011 stars of average mass 1.5 times that of our Sun. (b) How many protons (the most abundant nuclide) are there in this mates? (c) Estimate the total number of particles in the observable universe by multiplying the answer to (b) by two, since there is an electron for each proton, and then by 109, since there are far more particles (such as photons and neutrinos) in space than in luminous matter.

To determine

(a)

The mass of the luminous matter in known universe.

Explanation

Given data:

Mass of the sun is ms=1.99×1030kg.

Number of star is n=1011.

There are about 1011 galaxies in known universe.

Formula used:

The formula for approximate mass of the luminous matter in the Milky Way galaxy is,

ML=n×1.5ms   ......... (1)

The approximate mass of the dark and luminous matter in the Mily Way galaxy is,

M=1011ML   .........(2)

Calculation:

Substitute the given value in equation (1).

M=1011×1

To determine

(b)

The number of proton present in this mass.

To determine

(c)

The total number of particles in the observable universe by multiplying the answer.

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