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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332
Textbook Problem
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Smoking and Lung Function Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study was used to assess the effects of smoking on lung function. In 1985--86, the study enrolled about 5,000 people aged 18 to 30 years old in a long term study. Over the next 20 years, study subjects were periodically asked about their habits and their health, including their lung function, was assessed. FIGURE 38.19 is a model based on data from this study, of how lifetime tobacco and marijuana use affects forced expiration.

Chapter 38, Problem 2DAA, Smoking and Lung Function Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)

FIGURE 38.19 Associations between marijuana or tobacco smoking and the change in forced expiration volume (FEV). One joint-year means an average of one joint smoked daily for one year. One pack-year is an average of one pack smoked per day for one year. Dots at the top of the graph show the distribution of observations. Lines below show the modeled association. Blue is marijuana and black is tobacco. The change in FEV1 is given as milliliters of air.

Based on this model, how would smoking two packs of cigarettes a day for 20 years (40 pack-years or exposure) affect FEV1? What level of marijuana smoking would produce an equivalent effect?

Summary Introduction

To determine: How smoking two packs of cigarettes a day for 20 years would affect FEV, and what level of marijuana smoking would produce an equivalent effect.

Concept introduction: Smoking has a wide range of negative health effects. It increases the risk of lung infection and many types of cancer. Tobacco contains more than 40 carcinogens. Tobacco smokers have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Another smoking material is marijuana, which contains carbon monoxide and an assortment of carcinogens, including arsenic and ammonia. However, few studies have not found an increased risk of lung cancer in people who smoke only marijuana. The people who smoke both marijuana and tobacco seem to have more respiratory problems than those who smoke only tobacco.

Explanation

The forced expiration volume is the volume of air that an individual can exhale after deep inhalation. Smoking alters lung function, resulting in breathing problems that can change the forced expiration volume.

The data represented is based on the study done on the effects of smoking to assess the lung function by the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA). The study involves about 5,000 people aged between 18 and 30 years in a long-term study. The study was followed for 20 years, and a periodical assessment of habit, health, and lung function was conducted to know how the lifetime use of tobacco and marijuana affects the forced expiration...

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