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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Describe the structure of a human nephron from the proximal end to the distal end.

Summary Introduction

To review:

The description of the structure of human nephron from the proximal end to the distal end.

Introduction:

There are specialized excretory tubules called nephrons in all vertebrates that contribute to osmoregulation and carry out excretion. The nephrons are present in a specialized organ called kidney. It consists of various segments having different functions associated with them.

Explanation

The structure of a human nephron starts with the Bowman’s capsule in its proximal end and with the collecting duct in its distal end.

The structure of a human nephron is described from its proximal to distal end from top to bottom in the table below:

Segment Location Permeability and Movement Osmolarity of Filtrate and Urine Result of Passage
Boweman’s capsule cortex Water, ions, small nutrients, and nitrogenous wastes move through spaces between epithelia 300 mOsm/L, same as surrounding interstitial fluid Water and small substances, protein does not pass into nephron
Proximal convoluted tubule cortex Na+ and K+ actively reabsorbed, Cl- follows; water leaves through aquaporins; HCO3 reabsorbed into plasma of peritubular capallaries; glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients actively reabsorbed 300 mOsm/L 67% of ions, 65% of water, 50% of urea, and all nutrients rerturn to interstitial fluid; pH m...

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