menu
bartleby
search
close search
Hit Return to see all results
close solutoin list

Which of the following processes will lead to a decrease in the internal energy of a system? (1) Energy is transferred as heat to the system; (2) energy is transferred as heat from the system; (3) energy is transferred as work done on the system; or (4) energy is transferred as work done by the system. (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2and3

BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 5.4, Problem 1RC
Textbook Problem
3 views

Which of the following processes will lead to a decrease in the internal energy of a system? (1) Energy is transferred as heat to the system; (2) energy is transferred as heat from the system; (3) energy is transferred as work done on the system; or (4) energy is transferred as work done by the system.

  1. (a) 1 and 3
  2. (b) 2 and 4
  3. (c) 1 and 4
  4. (d) 2and3

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The four different state functions are given in the statement and which statements to decrease in the internal energy of a system, this concept need to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Enthalpy state function: It is only depends on the initial and final condition and not on the path taken to established these conditions, the  integral of state functions can be taken using only two values.

State functions: It depends only on two thermodynamic properties of the state substance is at moment for example temperature, pressure or temperature and entropy or any pair of other state functions.

Internal energy: It system has constant volume (ΔV=0) than term PΔV=0 and work is equal to zero, in the equation ΔU=q+wandw=0;ΔU=q , so internal energy is equal to the heat of the system.

Explanation of Solution

Reasons for correct option:

Given the functions (1 and 3) are will not affect in the enthalpy state functions because energy transferred heat to the system and work done on the system, so both process will not affect in internal energy.

Than statement (2 and 4) has affected in a internal energy process, the first law of thermodynamic states that Energy can neither be created and not be destroyed, but it can be converted from one to another.

Q=E+W , here Q is the heat energy added to system or removed from the system.

‘W’ indicated the work energy added to the system or removed from the system.

‘E’ has energy stored by the system, this can be two types of macro system which is one kinetic energy and another one potential energy, and internal energy indicated “U”

So corresponding equation

Q=Ek+Ep+U+WTheEk+Ep

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 5 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 5.4 - Nitrogen gas (2.75 L) is confined in a cylinder...Ch. 5.4 - Which of the following processes will lead to a...Ch. 5.4 - 2. In which of the following reactions is there a...Ch. 5.5 - The combustion of ethane, C2H6, has an enthalpy...Ch. 5.5 - 1. For the reaction 2 Hg(l) + O2(g) → 2 HgO(s),...Ch. 5.5 - 2. For the reaction 2 CO(g) + O2(g) → 2 CO2(g)....Ch. 5.6 - Assume 200. mL of 0.400 M HCl is mixed with 200....Ch. 5.6 - A 1.00-g sample of ordinary table sugar (sucrose,...Ch. 5.6 - A student used a coffee-cup calorimeter to...Ch. 5.6 - If, in the experiment described in the previous...Ch. 5.7 - Use Hesss law to calculate the enthalpy change for...Ch. 5.7 - Calculate the standard enthalpy of combustion for...Ch. 5.7 - 1. The standard enthalpy of formation for AlCl3 is...Ch. 5.7 - The standard enthalpies of formation of KNO3(s)...Ch. 5.7 - The enthalpy of reaction of guncotton depends on...Ch. 5.7 - The decomposition of nitroglycerin (C3H5N3O9)...Ch. 5.7 - 2. Acetic acid is made by the reaction CH3OH(l) +...Ch. 5 - Define the terms system and surroundings. What...Ch. 5 - What determines the directionality of energy...Ch. 5 - Identify whether the following processes are...Ch. 5 - Identify whether the following processes are...Ch. 5 - The molar heat capacity of mercury is 28.1 J/mol ...Ch. 5 - The specific heat capacity of benzene (C6H6) is...Ch. 5 - The specific heat capacity of copper metal is...Ch. 5 - How much energy as heat is required to raise the...Ch. 5 - The initial temperature of a 344-g sample of iron...Ch. 5 - After absorbing 1.850 kJ of energy as heat, the...Ch. 5 - A 45.5-g sample of copper at 99.8 C is dropped...Ch. 5 - One beaker contains 156 g of water at 22 C, and a...Ch. 5 - A 182-g sample of gold at some temperature was...Ch. 5 - When 108 g of water at a temperature of 22.5 C is...Ch. 5 - A 13.8-g piece of zinc is heated to 98.8 C in...Ch. 5 - A 237-g piece of molybdenum, initially at 100.0 C,...Ch. 5 - How much energy is evolved as heat when 1.0 L of...Ch. 5 - The energy required to melt 1.00 g of ice at 0 C...Ch. 5 - How much energy is required to vaporize 125 g of...Ch. 5 - Chloromethane, CH3CI, arises from microbial...Ch. 5 - The freezing point of mercury is 38.8 C. What...Ch. 5 - What quantity of energy, in joules, is required to...Ch. 5 - Ethanol, C2HsOH, boils at 78.29 C. How much...Ch. 5 - A 25.0-mL sample of benzene at 19.9 C was cooled...Ch. 5 - As a gas cools, it is compressed from 2.50 L to...Ch. 5 - A balloon expands from 0.75 L to 1.20 L as it is...Ch. 5 - A balloon does 324 J of work on the surroundings...Ch. 5 - As the gas trapped in a cylinder with a movable...Ch. 5 - When 745 J of energy in the form of heat is...Ch. 5 - The internal energy of a gas decreases by 1.65 kJ...Ch. 5 - A volume of 1.50 L of argon gas is confined in a...Ch. 5 - Nitrogen gas is confined in a cylinder with a...Ch. 5 - Nitrogen monoxide, a gas recently found to be...Ch. 5 - Calcium carbide, CaC2, is manufactured by the...Ch. 5 - Isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), one of the...Ch. 5 - Acetic acid. CH3CO2H, is made industrially by the...Ch. 5 - You mix 125 mL of 0.250 M CsOH with 50.0 mL of...Ch. 5 - You mix 125 mL of 0.250 M CsOH with 50.0 mL of...Ch. 5 - A piece of titanium metal with a mass of 20.8 g is...Ch. 5 - A piece of chromium metal with a mass of 24.26 g...Ch. 5 - Adding 5.44 g of NH4NO3(s) to 150.0 g of water in...Ch. 5 - You should use care when dissolving H2SO4 in water...Ch. 5 - Sulfur (2.56 g) was burned in a constant-volume...Ch. 5 - Suppose you burned 0.300 g of C(s) in an excess of...Ch. 5 - Suppose you burned 1.500 g of benzoic acid,...Ch. 5 - A 0.692-g sample of glucose, C6H12O6, was burned...Ch. 5 - An ice calorimeter can be used to determine the...Ch. 5 - A 9.36-g piece of platinum was heated to 98.6 C in...Ch. 5 - The enthalpy changes for the following reactions...Ch. 5 - The enthalpy changes of the following reactions...Ch. 5 - Enthalpy changes for the following reactions can...Ch. 5 - You wish to know the enthalpy change for the...Ch. 5 - Write a balanced chemical equation for the...Ch. 5 - Write a balanced chemical equation for the...Ch. 5 - (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the...Ch. 5 - (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the...Ch. 5 - Use standard enthalpies of formation in Appendix L...Ch. 5 - Use standard enthalpies of formation in Appendix L...Ch. 5 - The first step in the production of nitric acid...Ch. 5 - The Romans used calcium oxide, CaO, to produce a...Ch. 5 - The standard enthalpy of formation of solid barium...Ch. 5 - An important step in the production of sulfuric...Ch. 5 - The enthalpy change for the oxidation of...Ch. 5 - The enthalpy change for the oxidation of styrene....Ch. 5 - The following terms are used extensively in...Ch. 5 - For each of the following, tell whether the...Ch. 5 - For each of the following, define a system and its...Ch. 5 - What does the term standard state mean? What are...Ch. 5 - Use Appendix L to find the standard enthalpies of...Ch. 5 - You have a large balloon containing 1.0 mol of...Ch. 5 - Determine whether energy as heat is evolved or...Ch. 5 - Determine whether energy as heat is evolved or...Ch. 5 - Use standard enthalpies of formation to calculate...Ch. 5 - Which evolves more energy on cooling from 50 C to...Ch. 5 - You determine that 187 J of energy as heat is...Ch. 5 - Calculate the quantity of energy required to...Ch. 5 - You add 100.0 g of water at 60.0 C to 100.0 g of...Ch. 5 - Three 45-g ice cubes at 0 C are dropped into 5.00 ...Ch. 5 - Suppose that only two 45-g ice cubes had been...Ch. 5 - You take a diet cola from the refrigerator and...Ch. 5 - The standard molar enthalpy of formation of...Ch. 5 - Chloromethane, CH3Cl, a compound found throughout...Ch. 5 - When heated to a high temperature, coke (mainly...Ch. 5 - Camping stoves are fueled by propane (C3H8),...Ch. 5 - Methanol, CH3OH, a compound that can be made...Ch. 5 - Hydrazine and 1,1-dimethyIhydrazine both react...Ch. 5 - (a) Calculate the enthalpy change, rH, for the...Ch. 5 - You drink 350 mL of diet soda that is at a...Ch. 5 - Chloroform, CHCl3, is formed from methane and...Ch. 5 - Water gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and...Ch. 5 - Using standard enthalpies of formation, verify...Ch. 5 - A piece of lead with a mass of 27.3 g was heated...Ch. 5 - A 192-g piece of copper is heated to 100.0 C in a...Ch. 5 - Insoluble AgCl(s) precipitates when solutions of...Ch. 5 - Insoluble PbBr2(s) precipitates when solutions of...Ch. 5 - The value of U for the decomposition of 7.647 g of...Ch. 5 - A bomb calorimetric experiment was run to...Ch. 5 - The meals-ready-to-eat (MREs) in the military can...Ch. 5 - On a cold day, you can warm your hands with a heat...Ch. 5 - Without doing calculations, decide whether each of...Ch. 5 - Which of the following are state functions? (a)...Ch. 5 - You want to determine the value for the enthalpy...Ch. 5 - Prepare a graph of specific heat capacities for...Ch. 5 - Observe the molar heat capacity values for the...Ch. 5 - You are attending summer school and living in a...Ch. 5 - You want to heat the air in your house with...Ch. 5 - Water can be decomposed to its elements, H2 and...Ch. 5 - Suppose that an inch (2.54 cm) of rain falls over...Ch. 5 - Peanuts and peanut oil are organic materials and...Ch. 5 - Isomers are molecules with the same elemental...Ch. 5 - Several standard enthalpies of formation (from...Ch. 5 - When 0.850 g of Mg was burned in oxygen in a...Ch. 5 - A piece of gold (10.0 g, CAu = 0.129 J/g K) is...Ch. 5 - Methane, CH4, can be converted to methanol, which,...Ch. 5 - Calculate rH for the reaction 2 C(s) + 3 H2(g) + ...Ch. 5 - You have the six pieces of metal listed below,...Ch. 5 - Sublimation of 1.0 g of dry ice. CO2(s), forms...Ch. 5 - In the reaction of two moles of gaseous hydrogen...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
Refer to Table 4.7, and write the formula for chromic acid.

Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry

On a printed circuit board, a relatively long, straight conductor and a conducting rectangular loop lie in the ...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Compared with conventionally grown produce, organic produce is often- lower in pesticides. higher in phytochemi...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Name the simple sugar in lactose.

Introductory Chemistry: An Active Learning Approach