   # Which of the following processes will lead to a decrease in the internal energy of a system? (1) Energy is transferred as heat to the system; (2) energy is transferred as heat from the system; (3) energy is transferred as work done on the system; or (4) energy is transferred as work done by the system. (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2and3 ### Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section ### Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 5.4, Problem 1RC
Textbook Problem
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## Which of the following processes will lead to a decrease in the internal energy of a system? (1) Energy is transferred as heat to the system; (2) energy is transferred as heat from the system; (3) energy is transferred as work done on the system; or (4) energy is transferred as work done by the system. (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2and3

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The four different state functions are given in the statement and which statements to decrease in the internal energy of a system, this concept need to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Enthalpy state function: It is only depends on the initial and final condition and not on the path taken to established these conditions, the  integral of state functions can be taken using only two values.

State functions: It depends only on two thermodynamic properties of the state substance is at moment for example temperature, pressure or temperature and entropy or any pair of other state functions.

Internal energy: It system has constant volume (ΔV=0) than term PΔV=0 and work is equal to zero, in the equation ΔU=q+wandw=0;ΔU=q , so internal energy is equal to the heat of the system.

### Explanation of Solution

Reasons for correct option:

Given the functions (1 and 3) are will not affect in the enthalpy state functions because energy transferred heat to the system and work done on the system, so both process will not affect in internal energy.

Than statement (2 and 4) has affected in a internal energy process, the first law of thermodynamic states that Energy can neither be created and not be destroyed, but it can be converted from one to another.

Q=E+W , here Q is the heat energy added to system or removed from the system.

‘W’ indicated the work energy added to the system or removed from the system.

‘E’ has energy stored by the system, this can be two types of macro system which is one kinetic energy and another one potential energy, and internal energy indicated “U”

So corresponding equation

Q=Ek+Ep+U+WTheEk+Ep

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