Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Binder Ready Version
Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Binder Ready Version
4th Edition
ISBN: 9781118431221
Author: Richard M. Felder, Ronald W. Rousseau, Lisa G. Bullard
Publisher: WILEY

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Chapter 9, Problem 9.56P

Various uses for nitric acid are given in Problem 6.43, along with information about how this important chemical is synthesized industrially. The key reactions are oxidations of ammonia to nitric oxide and of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide, followed by dissolution of NO? in water:

   4 N H 3 ( g ) + 5 O 2 ( g ) 4 N O ( g ) + 6 H 2 O ( v ) 2 N O ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) 2 N O 2 ( g ) 3 N O 2 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l ) 2 H N O 3 ( a q ) + N O ( g )

Nitric oxide generated on dissolution of N O 2 in water is oxidized to produce additional N O 2 , which is then combined with water to form more HNO3. In this problem we neglect side reactions that would lower the product yield.

Ammonia vapor at 275°C and 8 atm is mixed with air, also at 275°C and 8 atm, and the combined stream is fed to a converter. Fresh air entering the system at 30°C and 1 atm with a relative humidity of 50% is compressed to 100°C and 8 atm, and the compressed air then exchanges heat with the product gas leaving the converter. The quantity of oxygen in the feed to the converter is 20% in excess of the amount theoretically required to convert all of the ammonia to H N O 3 . The entire process after the compressor may be taken to operate at a constant pressure of 8 atm.

In the converter, the ammonia is completely oxidized, with a negligible amount of N O 2 formed. The product gas leaves the converter at 850°C. and, as described in the preceding paragraph, exchanges heat with the air entering the system. The product gas then is fed to a waste-heat boiler that produces superheated steam at 200°C and l0 bar from liquid water at 35°C. The product gas leaving the waste- heat boiler is cooled further to 35°C and fed to an absorption column in which the NO is completely oxidized to N O 2 , which in turn combines with water (some of which is present in the product gas). Water is fed to the absorber at 25°C, at a rate sufficient to form a 55 wt% aqueous nitric acid solution. The NO formed in the reaction of N O 2 to produce H N O 3 is oxidized, and the N O 2 produced is hydrated to form still more H N O 3 . The off-gas from the process may be taken to contain only N2and O2.

  1. Construct a flowchart showing all process streams, including input and output from the process and the following equipment: converter, air compressor, exchanger recovering heat from the converter product, waste-heat boiler producing superheated steam, exchanger cooling the product gas before it is fed to the absorber, and absorber.

  • Taking a basis of l00 kmol of ammonia fed to the process, develop spreadsheets (preferably incorporating the use of APEx) to determine the following:
  • Molar amounts (kmol) of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor in the air fed to the process, cubic meters of air fed to the process, and kmol of water fed to the absorber.
  • Molar amounts, molar composition, and volume of the off-gas leaving the absorber.
  • Mass (kg) of product nitric acid solution.
  • Molar amounts and composition of the gas leaving the converter.
  • Heat removed from or added to (state which) the converter.
  • Temperature of the product gas after it has exchanged heat with the air, assuming no heat is transferred between the heat exchanger and the surroundings.
  • Production rate of superheated steam if the gas temperature leaving the boiler is 205°C. Before performing this calculation, determine if condensation of water occurs when the gas is cooled to 2O5°C. Since the superheated steam temperature is 200°C, explain why the selected temperature of the product gas is reasonable.
  • (viii) Heat removed from the product gas before it is fed to the absorber (Hint: Check the condition of the gas at 35°C) and mass of cooling water required to remove that heat if the water temperature can only be increased by 5°C. Assume no heat is transferred between the heat exchanger and the surroundings.

    (ix) Heat removed from or added to the absorber. Assume the heat capacity of the nitric acid solution is approximately the same as that of liquid water and the outlet temperatures of the off-gas and product streams are 25°C and 35°C, respectively.

  • Scale up the results calculated in Part (b) to determine all stream flow rates and heat transfer rates for a production rate of 5.0 × 103kg/h of the product solution.
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    Chapter 9 Solutions

    Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, Binder Ready Version

    Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.11PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.12PCh. 9 - In the production of many microelectronic devices,...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.14PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.15PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.16PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.17PCh. 9 - Carbon monoxide at 25°C and steam at 150°C are fed...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.19PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.20PCh. 9 - Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) can be produced by the...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.22PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.23PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.24PCh. 9 - Formaldehyde is produced commercially by the...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.26PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.27PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.28PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.29PCh. 9 - A gas mixture containing 85 mole% methane and the...Ch. 9 - Ethylene oxide is produced by the catalytic...Ch. 9 - Cumene (C6H5C3H7) is produced by reacting benzene...Ch. 9 - Ethylbenzene is converted to styrene in the...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.34PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.35PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.36PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.37PCh. 9 - Coke can be converted into CO—a fuel gas—in the...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.39PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.40PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.41PCh. 9 - The equilibrium constant for the ethane...Ch. 9 - You are checking the performance of a reactor in...Ch. 9 - Hydrogen is produced in the steam reforming of...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.45PCh. 9 - Five cubic meters of a 1.00-molar aqueous sulfuric...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.47PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.48PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.49PCh. 9 - Calcium chloride is a salt used in a number of...Ch. 9 - A dilute aqueous solution of sulfuric acid at 25°C...Ch. 9 - A 2.00 mole% sulfuric acid solution is neutralized...Ch. 9 - A 12.0-molar solution of sodium hydroxide (SG =...Ch. 9 - Citric acid (C6H8O7) is used in the preparation of...Ch. 9 - Ammonia scrubbing is one of many processes for...Ch. 9 - Various uses for nitric acid are given in Problem...Ch. 9 - A natural gas is analyzed and found to consist of...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.58PCh. 9 - A fuel gas is known to contain methane, ethane,...Ch. 9 - A fuel gas containing 85.0 mole% methane and the...Ch. 9 - A mixture of air and a fine spray of gasoline at...Ch. 9 - The heating value of a fuel oil is to be measured...Ch. 9 - Methanol vapor is burned with excess air in a...Ch. 9 - Methane at 25°C is burned in a boiler furnace with...Ch. 9 - Methane is burned completely with 40% excess air....Ch. 9 - A gaseous fuel containing methane and ethane is...Ch. 9 - A coal contains 73.0 wt% C, 4.7% H (not including...Ch. 9 - A mixture of methane, ethane, and argon at 25°C is...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.69PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.70PCh. 9 - Prob. 9.71PCh. 9 - A bituminous coal is burned with air in a boiler...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.73PCh. 9 - A natural gas containing 82.0 mole% CH4and the...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.75PCh. 9 - Liquid n-pentane at 25°C is burned with 30% excess...Ch. 9 - Methane is burned with 25% excess air in a...Ch. 9 - Methane and 30% excess air are to be fed to a...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.79PCh. 9 - In Problem 9.79, the synthesis of methanol from...Ch. 9 - Natural gas that contains methane, ethane, and...Ch. 9 - Prob. 9.82PCh. 9 - The wastewater treatment plant at the Ossabaw...

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