PRINCIPLES OF LIFE - 3rd Edition - by HILLIS - ISBN 9781319017712

3rd Edition
Publisher: MAC HIGHER
ISBN: 9781319017712


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Chapter 3.3 - Nucleic Acids Are Informational MacromoleculesChapter 3.4 - Proteins Are Polymers With Variable StructuresChapter 3.5 - The Function Of A Protein Is Determined By Its StructureChapter 4 - Cell Structure And MembranesChapter 4.1 - The Cell Membrane Separates The Interior Of The Cell From Its EnvironmentChapter 4.2 - Passive And Active Transport Are Used By Small Molecules To Cross MembranesChapter 4.3 - Vesicles Are Used To Transport Large Molecules Across Membranes In EukaryotesChapter 4.4 - Cell Size, Shape, And Ability To Move Are Determined By Internal And External StructuresChapter 4.5 - Compartmentalization Occurs In Prokaryotic Cells And Is Extensive In Eukaryotic CellsChapter 5 - Cell Metabolism: Synthesis And Degradation Of Biological MoleculesChapter 5.1 - Atp And Reduced Coenzymes Are The Energy Currency For BiosynthesisChapter 5.2 - Carbohydrate Catabolism In The Presence Of Oxygen Releases A Large Amount Of EnergyChapter 5.3 - Catabolic Pathways For Carbohydrates, Lipids, And Proteins Are InterconnectedChapter 5.4 - Anabolic Pathways Use Large Amounts Of AtpChapter 5.5 - Life Is Supported By The Sun: Light Energy Captured During Photosynthesis Converts Carbon Dioxide To CarbohydratesChapter 6 - Cell Signals And ResponsesChapter 6.1 - Cells Detect A Variety Of SignalsChapter 6.2 - Signal Molecule Receptors Can Be Classified Into Several GroupsChapter 6.3 - Signal Transduction Allows A Cell To Respond Appropriately To A SignalChapter 6.4 - Signal Transduction Is Highly RegulatedChapter 7 - The Cell Cycle And Cell DivisionChapter 7.1 - Reproduction May Be Asexual Or SexualChapter 7.2 - Asexual Reproduction Results In Genetically Identical Daughter CellsChapter 7.3 - Sexual Reproduction By Meiosis Halves The Number Of Chromosomes And Generates Genetic DiversityChapter 7.4 - Errors During Cell Division Can Result In Changes In Chromosome NumberChapter 7.5 - The Cell Cycle And Cell Death Are Highly Regulated In EukaryotesChapter 8 - Inheritance, Genes, And ChromosomesChapter 8.1 - Mendel Discovered Two Laws Of InheritanceChapter 8.2 - Genes Are Inherited On ChromosomesChapter 8.3 - Alleles, Genes, And The Environment Interact To Produce PhenotypeChapter 8.4 - Conjugation And Transformation Allow Exchange Of Genetic Material Between ProkaryotesChapter 9 - Dna And Its Role In HeredityChapter 9.1 - Dna Is The Molecule Of InheritanceChapter 9.2 - Dna Replication Is SemiconservativeChapter 9.3 - Dna Mutations Alter Dna SequenceChapter 10 - From Dna To Protein: Gene ExpressionChapter 10.1 - One Gene Encodes One PolypeptideChapter 10.2 - Gene Expression Begins With Transcription Of Dna Into RnaChapter 10.3 - The Rules For Translation Of Rna Into Amino Acids Are Contained In The Genetic CodeChapter 10.4 - Rna Is Translated Into Amino Acids By RibosomesChapter 10.5 - Proteins Are Sometimes Modified After TranslationChapter 11 - Regulation Of Gene ExpressionChapter 11.1 - The Regulation Of Gene Expression Occurs At Multiple LevelsChapter 11.2 - Prokaryotic Gene Regulation Occurs Primarily At The Level Of TranscriptionChapter 11.3 - Eukaryotic Transcription Is Regulated By General And Specific Transcription FactorsChapter 11.4 - Transcription Can Be Regulated By Epigenetic Changes To Dna And HistonesChapter 11.5 - Eukaryotic Gene Expression Can Be Regulated After TranscriptionChapter 12 - GenomesChapter 12.1 - The -omics Era Has Revolutionized BiologyChapter 12.2 - Prokaryotic Genomes Are Small, Compact, And DiverseChapter 12.3 - Eukaryotic Genomes Are Large And ComplexChapter 12.4 - Human Genomics Has Facilitated Advances In Many AreasChapter 13 - Processes Of EvolutionChapter 13.1 - Evolution Is Both Factual And The Basis Of Broader TheoryChapter 13.2 - Mutation, Selection, Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, And Nonrandom Mating Result In EvolutionChapter 13.3 - Evolution Can Be Measured By Changes In Allele FrequenciesChapter 13.4 - Selection Can Be Stabilizing, Directional, Or DisruptiveChapter 13.5 - Selection Can Maintain Polymorphisms In PopulationsChapter 14 - Reconstructing And Using PhylogeniesChapter 14.1 - All Of Life Is Connected Through Its Evolutionary HistoryChapter 14.2 - Phylogeny Can Be Reconstructed From Traits Of OrganismsChapter 14.3 - Phylogeny Makes Biology Comparative And PredictiveChapter 14.4 - Phylogeny Is The Basis Of Biological ClassificationChapter 15 - Evolution Of Genes And GenomesChapter 15.1 - Genomes Reveal Both Neutral And Selective Processes Of EvolutionChapter 15.2 - Rearrangements Of Genomes Can Result In New FeaturesChapter 15.3 - Changes In Gene Expression Often Shape EvolutionChapter 15.4 - Molecular Evolution Has Many Practical ApplicationsChapter 16 - SpeciationChapter 16.1 - Species Are Reproductively Isolated Lineages On The Tree Of LifeChapter 16.2 - Speciation Is A Natural Consequence Of Population SubdivisionChapter 16.3 - Speciation May Occur Through Geographic Isolation Or In SympatryChapter 16.4 - Reproductive Isolation Is Reinforced When Diverging Species Come Into ContactChapter 16.5 - Speciation Rates Are Highly Variable Across LifeChapter 17 - The History Of Life On EarthChapter 17.1 - Events In Earth's History Can Be DatedChapter 17.2 - Changes In Earth's Physical Environment Have Affected The Evolution Of LifeChapter 17.3 - Major Events In The Evolution Of Life Can Be Read In The Fossil RecordChapter 18 - Bacteria, Archaea, And VirusesChapter 18.1 - Bacteria And Archaea Are The Two Primary Divisions Of LifeChapter 18.2 - Prokaryotic Diversity Reflects The Ancient Origins Of LifeChapter 18.3 - Ecological Communities Depend On ProkaryotesChapter 18.4 - Viruses Have Evolved Many TimesChapter 19 - The Origin And Diversification Of EukaryotesChapter 19.1 - Eukaryotes Acquired Features From Both Archaea And BacteriaChapter 19.2 - Major Lineages Of Eukaryotes Diversified In The PrecambrianChapter 19.3 - Protists Reproduce Sexually And AsexuallyChapter 19.4 - Protists Are Critical Components Of Many EcosystemsChapter 20 - The Evolution Of PlantsChapter 20.1 - Primary Endosymbiosis Produced The First Photosynthetic EukaryotesChapter 20.2 - Key Adaptations Permitted Plants To Colonize LandChapter 20.3 - Vascular Tissues Led To Rapid Diversification Of Land PlantsChapter 20.4 - Pollen, Seeds, And Wood Contributed To The Success Of Seed PlantsChapter 20.5 - Flowers And Fruits Led To Increased Diversification Of AngiospermsChapter 21 - The Evolution And Diversity Of FungiChapter 21.1 - Fungi Digest Food Outside Their BodiesChapter 21.2 - Fungi Are Decomposers, Parasites, Predators, Or MutualistsChapter 21.3 - Sex In Fungi Involves Multiple Mating TypesChapter 21.4 - Fungi Have Many Practical UsesChapter 22 - Animal Origins And DiversityChapter 22.1 - Distinct Body Plans Evolved Among The AnimalsChapter 22.2 - Large Multicellular Animal Groups Arose In ParallelChapter 22.3 - Protostomes Have An Anterior Brain And A Ventral Nervous SystemChapter 22.4 - Arthropods Are Diverse And AbundantChapter 22.5 - Deuterostomes Include Echinoderms, Hemichordates, And ChordatesChapter 22.6 - Life On Land Contributed To Vertebrate DiversificationChapter 22.7 - Humans Evolved Among The PrimatesChapter 23 - The Plant BodyChapter 23.1 - The Plant Body Is Built From An Indeterminate Number Of Simple ModulesChapter 23.2 - Apical Meristems Build The Primary Plant BodyChapter 23.3 - Many Eudicot Stems And Roots Undergo Secondary GrowthChapter 23.4 - In Natural Settings, Plants Are Frequently InterconnectedChapter 24 - Plant Nutrition And TransportChapter 24.1 - Essential Plant Nutrients Include The Products Of PhotosynthesisChapter 24.2 - Mineral Nutrients Are Commonly Acquired From The SoilChapter 24.3 - Root Exudates Affect Soil Organisms And Nutrient UptakeChapter 24.4 - Water And Solutes Are Transported In The XylemChapter 24.5 - Solutes Are Transported In The PhloemChapter 25 - Plant Growth And DevelopmentChapter 25.1 - Cell Differentiation Occurs Progressively As Meristematic Cells MatureChapter 25.2 - Multiple Mechanisms Allow Cells That Are Initially Identical To Become Distinct From One AnotherChapter 25.3 - Developmental Changes Can Be Mediated By HormonesChapter 26 - Reproduction Of Flowering PlantsChapter 26.1 - Flowering Plants Can Reproduce AsexuallyChapter 26.2 - Most Flowering Plants Reproduce SexuallyChapter 26.3 - Hormones And Signaling Determine The Transition From The Vegetative To The Reproductive StateChapter 27 - Plants In The EnvironmentChapter 27.1 - Plants Respond To The Availability Of Water And Carbon DioxideChapter 27.2 - Plants Respond To Differences In Soil CompositionChapter 27.3 - Plants Respond To TemperatureChapter 27.4 - Plants Have Constitutive And Induced Responses To Pathogens And HerbivoresChapter 28 - Transformations Of Energy And Matter: nutrition, Temperature, and HomeostasisChapter 28.1 - Animals Eat To Obtain Chemical Building Blocks And EnergyChapter 28.2 - An Animal's Energy Needs Can Be QuantifiedChapter 28.3 - Responses To Temperature Help Clarify HomeostasisChapter 28.4 - Animal Bodies Exhibit Division Of Labor, But Each Cell Must Make Its Own AtpChapter 29 - Animals In Their EnvironmentsChapter 29.1 - Animals Prosper In Diverse Thermal EnvironmentsChapter 29.2 - Animals Live In The Ocean, Fresh Water, And Intermediate SalinitiesChapter 29.3 - The Phenotypes Of Individual Animals Can Change In Response To Environmental ChangeChapter 29.4 - Animals Have Biological Clocks Tuned To Cycles In Their EnvironmentChapter 30 - Breathing And CirculationChapter 30.1 - The Pathway For Oxygen: Oxygen Must Travel From Environment To MitochondriaChapter 30.2 - Animals Have Evolved Diverse Types Of Breathing OrgansChapter 30.3 - The Mammalian Breathing System Is Anatomically And Functionally ElaborateChapter 30.4 - Animals Have Evolved Circulatory Systems For Rapid Internal O2 TransportChapter 30.5 - A Beating Heart Propels The BloodChapter 30.6 - The Vascular System Plays Many RolesChapter 31 - Neurons, Sense Organs, And Nervous systemsChapter 31.1 - Nervous Systems Are Composed Of Neurons And Glial CellsChapter 31.2 - Neurons Generate Electric Signals By Controlling Lon DistributionsChapter 31.3 - Neurons Communicate With Other Cells At SynapsesChapter 31.4 - Sensory Processes Provide Information On An Animal's External Environment And Internal StatusChapter 31.5 - Neurons Are Organized Into Nervous SystemsChapter 32 - Control By The Endocrine And Nervous SystemsChapter 32.1 - The Endocrine And Nervous Systems Play Distinct, Interacting RolesChapter 32.2 - Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Distributed By The BloodChapter 32.3 - The Vertebrate Hypothalamus And Pituitary Gland Link The Nervous And Endocrine SystemsChapter 32.4 - Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological SystemsChapter 32.5 - The Insect Endocrine System Is Crucial For DevelopmentChapter 33 - Muscle And MovementChapter 33.1 - Muscle Cells Develop Forces By Means Of Cycles Of Protein-protein InteractionChapter 33.2 - The Function Of Skeletal Muscle Depends On Interaction With The Skeleton And On Atp Supply, Cell Type, And TrainingChapter 33.3 - Many Distinctive Types Of Muscle Have EvolvedChapter 34 - Animal ReproductionChapter 34.1 - Sexual Reproduction Depends On Gamete Formation And FertilizationChapter 34.2 - The Mammalian Reproductive System Is Hormonally ControlledChapter 34.3 - Reproduction Is Integrated With The Life CycleChapter 35 - Animal DevelopmentChapter 35.1 - Fertilization Activates DevelopmentChapter 35.2 - Cleavage Creates Building Blocks To Make An EmbryoChapter 35.3 - Gastrulation Sets The Stage For MorphogenesisChapter 35.4 - Extraembryonic Membranes Protect And Nourish The EmbryoChapter 35.5 - Development Continues Throughout LifeChapter 36 - Immunology: Animal Defense SystemsChapter 36.1 - Animals Use Innate And Adaptive Mechanisms To Defend Themselves Against PathogensChapter 36.2 - Innate Defenses Are NonspecificChapter 36.3 - The Adaptive Immune Response Is SpecificChapter 36.4 - The Adaptive Humoral Immune Response Involves Specific AntibodiesChapter 36.5 - The Adaptive Cellular Immune Response Involves T Cells And Their ReceptorsChapter 37 - Animal BehaviorChapter 37.1 - Behavior Is Controlled By The Nervous System And Integrated With The Rest Of FunctionChapter 37.2 - Behavior Is Influenced By Learning And Early ExperienceChapter 37.3 - Moving Through Space Presents Distinctive ChallengesChapter 37.4 - Behavior Structures Social Groups And Plays Key Ecological RolesChapter 38 - Ecological Systems In Time And SpaceChapter 38.1 - Ecological Systems Vary Over Space And TimeChapter 38.2 - Solar Energy Input And Topography Shape Earth's Physical EnvironmentsChapter 38.3 - Biogeography Reflects Physical GeographyChapter 38.4 - Biogeography Reflects Geological HistoryChapter 38.5 - Human Activities Influence Ecological Systems On A Global ScaleChapter 39 - PopulationsChapter 39.1 - Populations Are Patchy In Space And Dynamic Over TimeChapter 39.2 - Births Increase And Deaths Decrease Population SizeChapter 39.3 - Life Histories Determine Population Growth RatesChapter 39.4 - Populations Grow Multiplicatively, But The Multiplier Can ChangeChapter 39.5 - Immigration And Emigration Can Influence Population DynamicsChapter 39.6 - Ecology Provides Tools For Conserving And Managing PopulationsChapter 40 - Interactions Within And Among SpeciesChapter 40.1 - Interactions Between Species May Increase, Decrease, Or Have No Effect On FitnessChapter 40.2 - Species Interactions Influence Population Dynamics And DistributionsChapter 40.3 - Species Are Embedded In Complex Interaction WebsChapter 40.4 - Species Interactions Can Result In EvolutionChapter 41 - Ecological CommunitiesChapter 41.1 - Communities Contain Species That Colonize And PersistChapter 41.2 - Communities Change Over Space And TimeChapter 41.3 - Community Structure Affects Community FunctionChapter 41.4 - Diversity Patterns Provide Clues To What Determines DiversityChapter 41.5 - Community Ecology Suggests Strategies For Conserving Community FunctionChapter 42 - The Global EcosystemChapter 42.1 - Climate And Nutrients Influence Ecosystem FunctionChapter 42.2 - Biological, Geological, And Chemical Processes Move Materials Through EcosystemsChapter 42.3 - Certain Biogeochemical Cycles Are Especially Critical For EcosystemsChapter 42.4 - Biogeochemical Cycles Influence Global ClimateChapter 42.5 - Rapid Climate Change Influences Species And CommunitiesChapter 42.6 - Ecological Challenges Can Be Addressed Through Science And International Cooperation

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The compounds that stimulate the transcription of a particular gene are called inducers and the...The difference between the Sanger sequencing and high throughput sequencing is described as follows:...The difference between the facts of evolution and the evolution theory is as follows:...The phylogenetic tree is defined as the diagrammatic representation of evolutionary relationship...Positive selection is the process where the extreme phenotypes are supported through evolution...The species concept used by paleontologists in which the fossil remains are grouped into species is...For most of the evolutionary history, life was limited to the oceans. About 3 billion years ago,...Genetic studies reveal that all life forms share a common ancestor. Similarly, eukaryotes have a...The protists are mostly so small and they can be seen only under a microscope. Most protists are...The cyanobacteria, which are a photosynthetic bacterium, became endosymbiotic in plants and thereby...The food materials are digested by the fungi in a distinctive way. They have the capacity to degrade...In the bilateral symmetry, the single plane runs in the mid line of the body and divides into equal...The advantage of the indeterminate growth in plants growing near grazing animals is that they keep...The source for carbon for plants is air. Carbon is available for the plants in the form of carbon...The transcription factors play a central role in regulating the gene expression by binding to the...Johnny Appleseed had distributed apple seeds in the United States in the year 1800s. He preferred...Stomatal trade-off occurs mainly for processes such as transpiration and photosynthesis. During...A common combination of food that offers all the eight essential amino acids. For example, eating...Hibernation is defined as a state of thermal conformity and low body temperature that persists in...The physical cause of diffusion is the random motion of molecules in a substance. In a solution, if...The area of the cell membrane with an action potential is referred to as a depolarized cell...Hormones can be defined as the chemical messengers or molecules that are released or secreted into...A sarcomere is a structure in a muscle fiber that consists of half dark and half of light bands....In sexually reproducing animals, males and females are differentiated on the basis of primary...The union of male and female gametes is a complex process. Several male gametes are attracted to a...The three types of lymphocytes are as follows: B lymphocytes: B-cell lymphocytes are the cells that...Animal behavior is controlled by their nervous system. A biologist has recently concluded that...The ecological systems present at a higher level in the hierarchy of biological organization tend to...Population size is the total number of individuals in a population. For example, a particular...In the same ecosystem, there are five ways by which species interact with each other. Species...The assembly of communities occurs due to two different processes. These processes are the...Aspects of ecosystem functions are the complex processes through which various components share and...

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Principles Of Life
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ISBN: 9781319011482
3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781319465377
3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781319410551
3rd Edition
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3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781319492069
3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781319450311
3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781319505370
3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781319450298
3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781319530709
3rd Edition
ISBN: 9781319450366

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