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#### Concept explainers

A number of common substances are

Some of these materials exhibit characteristics of both solid and fluid behavior under different conditions. Explain and give examples.

Identify the materials that exhibit the characteristics of both solid and fluid under different condition.

### Explanation of Solution

Wax, Tar and Jello have the characteristics of solid at room temperature and below at ordinary pressure. However, they exhibit fluid characteristics at high pressure over long periods. They liquefy and exist as viscous fluids at high temperature.

Silly putty and modelling clay exhibit fluid behavior when they are slowly sheared. But sudden application of stress leads to fracture, which is a characteristic of a solid.

Shaving cream and toothpaste behaves like a solid when at rest in the tube. But when they are squeezed, they flow out of the tube like a fluid.

Similarly, sand behaves as solid when at rest and flows down when placed on an incline.

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# Chapter 1 Solutions

Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

# Additional Engineering Textbook Solutions

Degarmo's Materials And Processes In Manufacturing

Engineering Mechanics: Statics

Manufacturing Engineering & Technology

Statics and Mechanics of Materials (5th Edition)

Mechanics of Materials

Mechanics of Materials (10th Edition)

- In order to determine the viscosity of a Newtonian fluid, you conducted an experiment at 20°C. The bottom plate is fixed and cannot move. The distance between bottom plate and upper plate is 30 cm. You apply different shear stress values (0,3-0,6 and 0,9 N/m2) and measured the velocity of the upper plate (0,095-0,191 and 0,282 m/s). a) Calculate the viscosity of the fluid. b) if the experiment was conducted at 30°C, do you think if the measured velocities of the upper plate will be higher or lower? (Assume you apply same shear stresses) Explain why. Moving plate и 30 cm H fluid Fixed plate T (N/m?) U-upper plate (m/s) 0,3 0,095 0,6 0,191 0,9 0,282
*arrow_forward*(a) Answer the followings: (i) What is a surface tension? (i) “When a glass tube is immersed in a pool of mercury, the meniscus is depressed." Based on the above statement and Figure la, explain why the meniscus is depressed? Mercury Figure la (b) Two immiscible layers of Newtonian fluid are dragged along by the motion of an upper plate as shown in the Figure 1b. The bottom plate is stationary and the velocity profiles for each fluid are linear. The top fluid (fluid 1), with a specific gravity of 0.8 and kinematic viscosity of 1.0 × 10“ m²/s, puts a shear stress on the upper plate. The lower fluid (fluid 2), with a specific gravity of 1.1 and kinematic viscosity of 1.3 × 10“ m²/s, puts a shear stress on the bottom plate. Determine the ratio of the shear stress on the top plate to the shear stress on the bottom plate. 3 m/s 0.010 m fluid 1 fluid 2 0.036 m 2 m/s Figure lb*arrow_forward*Define the terms: (i) Kinematic viscosity (ii) Surface tension (iii) Specific gravity (iv) Vapour pressure (v) Newtonian fluid.*arrow_forward* - (1) The Surface tension of water in contact with air at 23°C is given as 725x104 N/m. The pressure inside a droplet of water is to be 0.0165 N/cm² greater than the outside pressure, calculate the diameter of a droplet of water in mm. (ii) The Surface tension of water in contact with air at 23°C is given as 745x10-4 N/m. The pressure inside a soap bubble is to be 0.0155 N/cm? greater than the outside pressure, calculate the radius of it in mm.
*arrow_forward*Use the coefficient of volume expansion to estimate the density of water as it is heated from 60°F to 130°F at 1 atm. Compare your result with the actual density (from the appendices).*arrow_forward*What is a fluid? Define mass density, specific weight, and real and ideal fluids. Differentiate between kinematics and statics.*arrow_forward* - (a) A liquid with known properties (i.e. density, viscosity, etc. ) is contained in the space Ra 0 the temperature of the outer cylinder (r = Ro) is T; > Tọ. Provide an estimate for the time required to reach steady state (i.c. the time required for the diffusion penetration to reach the surface of the inner cylinder). (b) Define the thermal diffusivity a and its units. To answer the "units question", use only the fundamental units: length L, mass M, time T and temperature e. For example, the units for the velocity are L/T (and not m/sec or miles/hour). (e) You study a problem which involves momentum and energy transfer. Under which condition(s) the problem velocity and temperature are identical, i.e. are given by the same equation if we scale both the velocity and the temperature with their corresponding scales?
*arrow_forward*If angle of contact of a drop of liquid is acute then (a) adhesion is more than cohesion (b) cohesion is more than adhesion (c) cohesion is equal to adhesion (d) adhesion and cohesion have no bearing with angle of contact*arrow_forward*Unit weight of liquids Derive the formula used in determining the unit weight or density of a liquid using the displacement method. How is it different from the direct method? What are the practical applications of experiment?*arrow_forward* - Find the Prandtl number of the mercury at 300 K. If the properties of mercury at 300 K are, Density = 13529 kg/m³, Cp= 0.1393 kJ/kgK, dynamic viscosity = 0.1523 × 10-2 Ns/m² and thermal conductivity = 8.540 W/mK .
*arrow_forward*() The Surface tension of water in contact with air at 23°C is given as 735x10-4 N/m. The pressure inside a droplet of water is to be 0.017 N/cm? greater than the outside pressure, calculate the diameter of a droplet of water in mm. (ii) The Surface tension of water in contact with air at 23°C is given as 790x10-4 N/m. The pressure inside a soap bubble is to be 0.0175 N/cm² greater than the outside pressure, calculate the radius of it in mm. ( on (ENTER ONLY THE VALUES BY REFERRING THE UNITS GIVEN) SOLUTIONS: ) The diameter of the water droplet in mm = (ii) The radius of the soap bubble in mm =*arrow_forward*Buoyant force is the difference between the fluid forces on the top and bottom sides of a solid. Find an expression for the buoyant force of a rectangular solid submerged in a fluid with its top side parallel to the surface of the fluid?*arrow_forward*

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