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The pH of Mixtures of Acid, Base, and Salt Solutions a When 0.10 mol of the ionic solid NaX, where X is an unknown anion, is dissolved in enough water to make 1.0 L of solution, the pH of the solution is 9.12. When 0.10 mol of the ionic solid ACl, where A is an unknown cation, is dissolved in enough water to make 1.0 L of solution, the pH of the solution is 7.00. What would be the pH of 1.0 L of solution that contained 0.10 mol of AX? Be sure to document how you arrived at your answer. b In the AX solution prepared above, is there any OH − present? If so, compare the [OH − ] in the solution to the [H 3 O + ]. c From the information presented in part a, calculate K b for the X − ( aq ) anion and K a for the conjugate acid of X − ( aq ). d To 1.0 L of solution that contains 0.10 mol of AX, you add 0.025 mol of HCl. How will the pH of this solution compare to that of the solution that contained only NaX? Use chemical reactions as part of your explanation; you do not need to solve for a numerical answer. e Another 1.0 L sample of solution is prepared by mixing 0.10 mol of AX and 0.10 mol of HCl. The pH of the resulting solution is found to be 3.12. Explain why the pH of this solution is 3.12. f Finally, consider a different 1.0-L sample of solution that contains 0.10 mol of AX and 0.1 mol of NaOH. The pH of this solution is found to be 13.00. Explain why the pH of this solution is 13.00. g Some students mistakenly think that a solution that contains 0.10 mol of AX and 0.10 mol of HCl should have a pH of 1.00. Can you come up with a reason why students have this misconception? Write an approach that you would use to help these students understand what they are doing wrong.

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General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305580343
BuyFind

General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305580343

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 16, Problem 16.22QP
Textbook Problem

The pH of Mixtures of Acid, Base, and Salt Solutions

  1. a When 0.10 mol of the ionic solid NaX, where X is an unknown anion, is dissolved in enough water to make 1.0 L of solution, the pH of the solution is 9.12. When 0.10 mol of the ionic solid ACl, where A is an unknown cation, is dissolved in enough water to make 1.0 L of solution, the pH of the solution is 7.00. What would be the pH of 1.0 L of solution that contained 0.10 mol of AX? Be sure to document how you arrived at your answer.
  2. b In the AX solution prepared above, is there any OH present? If so, compare the [OH] in the solution to the [H3O+].
  3. c From the information presented in part a, calculate Kb for the X(aq) anion and Ka for the conjugate acid of X(aq).
  4. d To 1.0 L of solution that contains 0.10 mol of AX, you add 0.025 mol of HCl. How will the pH of this solution compare to that of the solution that contained only NaX? Use chemical reactions as part of your explanation; you do not need to solve for a numerical answer.
  5. e Another 1.0 L sample of solution is prepared by mixing 0.10 mol of AX and 0.10 mol of HCl. The pH of the resulting solution is found to be 3.12. Explain why the pH of this solution is 3.12.
  6. f Finally, consider a different 1.0-L sample of solution that contains 0.10 mol of AX and 0.1 mol of NaOH. The pH of this solution is found to be 13.00. Explain why the pH of this solution is 13.00.
  7. g Some students mistakenly think that a solution that contains 0.10 mol of AX and 0.10 mol of HCl should have a pH of 1.00. Can you come up with a reason why students have this misconception? Write an approach that you would use to help these students understand what they are doing wrong.

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Chapter 16 Solutions

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)
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Ch. 16.4 - Benzoic acid, HC7H5O2, and its salts are used as...Ch. 16.4 - Which of the following aqueous solutions has the...Ch. 16.5 - The chemical equation for the hydrolysis of...Ch. 16.5 - What is the concentration of formate ion, CHO2, in...Ch. 16.5 - One liter of solution was prepared by dissolving...Ch. 16.6 - What is the pH of a buffer prepared by adding 30.0...Ch. 16.6 - Suppose you add 50.0 mL of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide...Ch. 16.6 - You add 1.5 mL of 1 M HCl to each of the following...Ch. 16.6 - The beaker on the left below represents a buffer...Ch. 16.7 - What is the pH of a solution in which 15 mL of...Ch. 16.7 - What is the pH at the equivalence point when 25 mL...Ch. 16.7 - An 80.0-mL sample of 0.200 M ammonia is titrated...Ch. 16 - Write an equation for the ionization of hydrogen...Ch. 16 - Which of the following is the weakest acid: HClO4,...Ch. 16 - Briefly describe two methods for determining Ka...Ch. 16 - Describe how the degree of ionization of a weak...Ch. 16 - Consider a solution of 0.0010 M HF (Ka = 6.8 ...Ch. 16 - Phosphorous acid, H2PHO3, is a diprotic acid....Ch. 16 - H2A is a weak diprotic acid having Ka2 = 4.5 104...Ch. 16 - Write the equation for the ionization of aniline,...Ch. 16 - Which of the following is the strongest base: NH3,...Ch. 16 - Do you expect a solution of anilinium chloride...Ch. 16 - What is meant by the common-ion effect? Give an...Ch. 16 - The pH of 0.10 M CH3NH2 (methylamine) is 11.8....Ch. 16 - Define the term buffer. Give an example.Ch. 16 - What is meant by the capacity of a buffer?...Ch. 16 - Describe the pH changes that occur during the...Ch. 16 - If the pH is 8.0 at the equivalence point for the...Ch. 16 - Which of the following salts would produce the...Ch. 16 - If you mix 0.10 mol of NH3 and 0.10 mol of HCl in...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a very weak diprotic...Ch. 16 - If 20.0 mL of a 0.10 M NaOH solution is added to a...Ch. 16 - Aqueous Solutions of Acids, Bases, and Salts a For...Ch. 16 - The pH of Mixtures of Acid, Base, and Salt...Ch. 16 - Which of the following beakers best represents a...Ch. 16 - You have 0.10-mol samples of three acids...Ch. 16 - What reaction occurs when each of the following is...Ch. 16 - You have the following solutions, all of the same...Ch. 16 - Rantidine is a nitrogen base that is used to...Ch. 16 - A chemist prepares dilute solutions of equal molar...Ch. 16 - You want to prepare a buffer solution that has a...Ch. 16 - A friend of yours has performed three titrations:...Ch. 16 - You are given the following acidbase titration...Ch. 16 - The three flasks shown below depict the titration...Ch. 16 - Write chemical equations for the acid ionizations...Ch. 16 - Write chemical equations for the acid ionizations...Ch. 16 - Acrylic acid, whose formula is HC3H3O2 or...Ch. 16 - Heavy metal azides, which are salts of hydrazoic...Ch. 16 - Boric acid, B(OH)3, is used as a mild antiseptic....Ch. 16 - Formic acid, HCHO2, is used to make methyl formate...Ch. 16 - C6H4NH2COOH, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), is...Ch. 16 - Barbituric acid. HC4H3N2O3, is used to prepare...Ch. 16 - A solution of acetic acid, HC2H3O2, on a...Ch. 16 - A chemist wanted to determine the concentration of...Ch. 16 - Hydrofluoric acid, HF, unlike hydrochloric acid,...Ch. 16 - Chloroacetic acid, HC2H2ClO2, has a greater acid...Ch. 16 - What is the hydronium-ion concentration of a 2.00...Ch. 16 - What is the hydronium-ion concentration of a 3.00 ...Ch. 16 - Phthalic acid, H2C8H4O4, is a diprotic acid used...Ch. 16 - Carbonic acid, H2CO3, can be found in a wide...Ch. 16 - Write the chemical equation for the base...Ch. 16 - Write the chemical equation for the base...Ch. 16 - Butylamine, C4H3NH2 is a weak base. A 0.47 M...Ch. 16 - Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is a gas with a fishy,...Ch. 16 - What is the concentration of hydroxide ion in a...Ch. 16 - What is the concentration of hydroxide ion in a...Ch. 16 - Note whether hydrolysis occurs for each of the...Ch. 16 - Note whether hydrolysis occurs for each of the...Ch. 16 - Write the equation for the acid ionization of the...Ch. 16 - Write the equation for the acid ionization of the...Ch. 16 - For each of the following salts, indicate whether...Ch. 16 - Note whether the aqueous solution of each of the...Ch. 16 - Decide whether solutions of the following salts...Ch. 16 - Decide whether solutions of the following salts...Ch. 16 - Obtain a the Kb value for NO2; b the Ka value for...Ch. 16 - Obtain a the Kb value for C3H3O2; b the Kd value...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a 0.025 M aqueous solution of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the OH concentration and pH of a 0.0025...Ch. 16 - Calculate the concentration of pyridine, C5H5N, in...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a 0.30 M solution of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the degree of ionization of a 0.75 M HF...Ch. 16 - Calculate the degree of ionization of a 0.22 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution that is 0.600 M HCHO2...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution that is 0.20 M KOCN...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution that is 0.10 M CH3NH2...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution that is 0.15 M...Ch. 16 - A buffer is prepared by adding 39.8 mL of 0.75 M...Ch. 16 - A buffer is prepared by adding 115 mL of 0.30 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.10 M...Ch. 16 - A buffer is prepared by mixing 525 mL of 0.50 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.15 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.10 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.15 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.15 M...Ch. 16 - How many moles of sodium acetate must be added to...Ch. 16 - How many moles of hydrofluoric acid, HF, must be...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution in which 15 mL of...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution in which 35 mL of...Ch. 16 - A 1.24-g sample of benzoic acid was dissolved in...Ch. 16 - A 0.400-g sample of propionic acid was dissolved...Ch. 16 - Find the pH of the solution obtained when 32 mL of...Ch. 16 - What is the pH at the equivalence point when 22 mL...Ch. 16 - A 50.0-mL sample of a 0.100 M solution of NaCN is...Ch. 16 - Sodium benzoate, NaC7H5O2, is used as a...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution obtained by mixing...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution obtained by mixing...Ch. 16 - Salicylic acid, C6H4OHCOOH, is used in the...Ch. 16 - Cyanoacetic acid, CH2CNCOOH, is used in the...Ch. 16 - A 0.050 M aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen...Ch. 16 - A 0.10 M aqueous solution of sodium dihydrogen...Ch. 16 - Calculate the base-ionization constants for CN and...Ch. 16 - Calculate the base-ionization constants for PO43...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a 0.072 M aqueous solution of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a 0.10 M aqueous solution of...Ch. 16 - An artificial fruit beverage contains 11.0 g of...Ch. 16 - A buffer is made by dissolving 12.5 g of sodium...Ch. 16 - Blood contains several acid base systems that tend...Ch. 16 - Codeine, C23H21NO3, is an alkaloid (Kb = 6 2 109)...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution obtained by mixing...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution made up from 2.0 g...Ch. 16 - Find the pH of the solution obtained when 25 mL of...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of the solution obtained by...Ch. 16 - Ionization of the first proton from H2SO4 is...Ch. 16 - Ionization of the first proton from H2SeO4 is...Ch. 16 - Methylammonium chloride is a salt of methylamine,...Ch. 16 - Sodium benzoate is a salt of benzoic acid,...Ch. 16 - Each of the following statements concerns a 0.010...Ch. 16 - Each of the following statements concerns a 0.10 M...Ch. 16 - A 0.288-g sample of an unknown monoprotic organic...Ch. 16 - A 0.239-g sample of unknown organic base is...Ch. 16 - a Draw a pH titration curve that represents the...Ch. 16 - a Draw a pH titration curve that represents the...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium equations and Ka values for three...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium equations and Ka values for three...Ch. 16 - A 25.0-mL sample of hydroxylamine is titrated to...Ch. 16 - A 25.00-mL sample contains 0.562 g of NaHCO3. This...Ch. 16 - A solution made up of 1.0 M NH3 and 0.50 M...Ch. 16 - A solution is prepared from 0.150 mol of formic...Ch. 16 - An important component of blood is the buffer...Ch. 16 - An important component of blood is the buffer...Ch. 16 - Tartaric acid is a weak diprotic fruit acid with...Ch. 16 - Malic acid is a weak diprotic organic acid with...Ch. 16 - A quantity of 0.25 M sodium hydroxide is added to...Ch. 16 - A quantity of 0.15 M hydrochloric acid is added to...Ch. 16 - How can you account for the fact that normal rain...Ch. 16 - How is acid rain defined? What is the source of...Ch. 16 - A 30.0-mL sample of 0.05 M HClO is titrated by a...Ch. 16 - A 0.108 M sample of a weak acid is 3.95% ionized...Ch. 16 - A generic base, B, is added to 2.25 L of water....Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution made by mixing 0.62...Ch. 16 - Cyanic acid, HOCN, is a weak acid with a Ka value...Ch. 16 - The Kb for NH3 is 1.8 105 at 25C. Calculate the...Ch. 16 - Ka for formic acid is 1.7 104 at 25C. A buffer is...Ch. 16 - K4 for acetic acid is 1.7 105 at 25C. A buffer...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution made by mixing 7.52...Ch. 16 - A 0.150 M solution of NaClO is prepared by...Ch. 16 - A solution is prepared by dissolving ammonium...Ch. 16 - Two samples of 1.00 M HCl of equivalent volumes...Ch. 16 - You have the following solutions at your disposal...Ch. 16 - A sample of NH4Cl is prepared for titration by...Ch. 16 - A solution of weak base is titrated to the...Ch. 16 - A buffer solution is prepared by mixing equal...Ch. 16 - The pH of a white vinegar solution is 2.45. This...Ch. 16 - The pH of a household cleaning solution is 11.50....Ch. 16 - What is the freezing point of 0.92 M aqueous...Ch. 16 - What is the freezing point of 0.87 M aqueous...Ch. 16 - A chemist needs a buffer with pH 4.35. How many...Ch. 16 - A chemist needs a buffer with pH 3.50. How many...Ch. 16 - Weak base B has a pKb of 6.78 and weak acid HA has...

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