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General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305580343
BuyFind

General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305580343

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 16.3, Problem 16.6E
Textbook Problem

What is the hydronium-ion concentration of a 0.20 M solution of ammonia in water? See Table 16.2 for Kb.

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hydronium ion concentration of a 0.20 M solution of ammonia in water has to be calculated

Concept Information:

Base ionization constant:

The ionization of a weak base B is given by the below equation.

B(aq)+H2O(l)HB+(aq)+OH-(aq)

The equilibrium expression for the ionization of weak base B will be,

Kb=[HB+][OH-][B]

Where,

Kb is base ionization constant,

[OH] is concentration of hydroxide ion

[HB+]   is concentration of conjugate acid

[B] is concentration of the base

pOH definition:

The pOH of a solution is defined as the negative base-10 logarithm of the hydroxide ion [OH-] concentration. pOH Scale is analogous to pH scale.

pOH=-log[OH-]

Relationship between pH and pOH

pH+pOH=14,at25oC

To Calculate: The hydronium ion concentration of a 0.20 M solution of ammonia in water

Explanation of Solution

Given data:

The concentration of ammonia solution = 0.20 M

The Kb value of ammonia is 1.8×10-5

Concentration of hydrogen ion and acetate ion:

Set up the equilibrium table for the hydrolysis of ammonia reaction.

Let x be the unknown concentration

  NH3(aq)+H2O(l)OH-(aq)+NH4+(aq)
Initial (M)

0.20

-x

0.20-x

0.00 0.00
Change (M) +x +x
Equilibrium (M) x x

The Kb value of ammonia is 1.8×10-5

     Kb =[NH4+][OH-][NH3]1.8×105 =(x)(x)0

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Chapter 16 Solutions

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)
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Ch. 16.4 - Benzoic acid, HC7H5O2, and its salts are used as...Ch. 16.4 - Which of the following aqueous solutions has the...Ch. 16.5 - The chemical equation for the hydrolysis of...Ch. 16.5 - What is the concentration of formate ion, CHO2, in...Ch. 16.5 - One liter of solution was prepared by dissolving...Ch. 16.6 - What is the pH of a buffer prepared by adding 30.0...Ch. 16.6 - Suppose you add 50.0 mL of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide...Ch. 16.6 - You add 1.5 mL of 1 M HCl to each of the following...Ch. 16.6 - The beaker on the left below represents a buffer...Ch. 16.7 - What is the pH of a solution in which 15 mL of...Ch. 16.7 - What is the pH at the equivalence point when 25 mL...Ch. 16.7 - An 80.0-mL sample of 0.200 M ammonia is titrated...Ch. 16 - Write an equation for the ionization of hydrogen...Ch. 16 - Which of the following is the weakest acid: HClO4,...Ch. 16 - Briefly describe two methods for determining Ka...Ch. 16 - Describe how the degree of ionization of a weak...Ch. 16 - Consider a solution of 0.0010 M HF (Ka = 6.8 ...Ch. 16 - Phosphorous acid, H2PHO3, is a diprotic acid....Ch. 16 - H2A is a weak diprotic acid having Ka2 = 4.5 104...Ch. 16 - Write the equation for the ionization of aniline,...Ch. 16 - Which of the following is the strongest base: NH3,...Ch. 16 - Do you expect a solution of anilinium chloride...Ch. 16 - What is meant by the common-ion effect? Give an...Ch. 16 - The pH of 0.10 M CH3NH2 (methylamine) is 11.8....Ch. 16 - Define the term buffer. Give an example.Ch. 16 - What is meant by the capacity of a buffer?...Ch. 16 - Describe the pH changes that occur during the...Ch. 16 - If the pH is 8.0 at the equivalence point for the...Ch. 16 - Which of the following salts would produce the...Ch. 16 - If you mix 0.10 mol of NH3 and 0.10 mol of HCl in...Ch. 16 - Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a very weak diprotic...Ch. 16 - If 20.0 mL of a 0.10 M NaOH solution is added to a...Ch. 16 - Aqueous Solutions of Acids, Bases, and Salts a For...Ch. 16 - The pH of Mixtures of Acid, Base, and Salt...Ch. 16 - Which of the following beakers best represents a...Ch. 16 - You have 0.10-mol samples of three acids...Ch. 16 - What reaction occurs when each of the following is...Ch. 16 - You have the following solutions, all of the same...Ch. 16 - Rantidine is a nitrogen base that is used to...Ch. 16 - A chemist prepares dilute solutions of equal molar...Ch. 16 - You want to prepare a buffer solution that has a...Ch. 16 - A friend of yours has performed three titrations:...Ch. 16 - You are given the following acidbase titration...Ch. 16 - The three flasks shown below depict the titration...Ch. 16 - Write chemical equations for the acid ionizations...Ch. 16 - Write chemical equations for the acid ionizations...Ch. 16 - Acrylic acid, whose formula is HC3H3O2 or...Ch. 16 - Heavy metal azides, which are salts of hydrazoic...Ch. 16 - Boric acid, B(OH)3, is used as a mild antiseptic....Ch. 16 - Formic acid, HCHO2, is used to make methyl formate...Ch. 16 - C6H4NH2COOH, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), is...Ch. 16 - Barbituric acid. 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A 0.47 M...Ch. 16 - Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is a gas with a fishy,...Ch. 16 - What is the concentration of hydroxide ion in a...Ch. 16 - What is the concentration of hydroxide ion in a...Ch. 16 - Note whether hydrolysis occurs for each of the...Ch. 16 - Note whether hydrolysis occurs for each of the...Ch. 16 - Write the equation for the acid ionization of the...Ch. 16 - Write the equation for the acid ionization of the...Ch. 16 - For each of the following salts, indicate whether...Ch. 16 - Note whether the aqueous solution of each of the...Ch. 16 - Decide whether solutions of the following salts...Ch. 16 - Decide whether solutions of the following salts...Ch. 16 - Obtain a the Kb value for NO2; b the Ka value for...Ch. 16 - Obtain a the Kb value for C3H3O2; b the Kd value...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a 0.025 M aqueous solution of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the OH concentration and pH of a 0.0025...Ch. 16 - Calculate the concentration of pyridine, C5H5N, in...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a 0.30 M solution of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the degree of ionization of a 0.75 M HF...Ch. 16 - Calculate the degree of ionization of a 0.22 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution that is 0.600 M HCHO2...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution that is 0.20 M KOCN...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution that is 0.10 M CH3NH2...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution that is 0.15 M...Ch. 16 - A buffer is prepared by adding 39.8 mL of 0.75 M...Ch. 16 - A buffer is prepared by adding 115 mL of 0.30 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.10 M...Ch. 16 - A buffer is prepared by mixing 525 mL of 0.50 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.15 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.10 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.15 M...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a buffer solution that is 0.15 M...Ch. 16 - How many moles of sodium acetate must be added to...Ch. 16 - How many moles of hydrofluoric acid, HF, must be...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution in which 15 mL of...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of a solution in which 35 mL of...Ch. 16 - A 1.24-g sample of benzoic acid was dissolved in...Ch. 16 - A 0.400-g sample of propionic acid was dissolved...Ch. 16 - Find the pH of the solution obtained when 32 mL of...Ch. 16 - What is the pH at the equivalence point when 22 mL...Ch. 16 - A 50.0-mL sample of a 0.100 M solution of NaCN is...Ch. 16 - Sodium benzoate, NaC7H5O2, is used as a...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution obtained by mixing...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution obtained by mixing...Ch. 16 - Salicylic acid, C6H4OHCOOH, is used in the...Ch. 16 - Cyanoacetic acid, CH2CNCOOH, is used in the...Ch. 16 - A 0.050 M aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen...Ch. 16 - A 0.10 M aqueous solution of sodium dihydrogen...Ch. 16 - Calculate the base-ionization constants for CN and...Ch. 16 - Calculate the base-ionization constants for PO43...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a 0.072 M aqueous solution of...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a 0.10 M aqueous solution of...Ch. 16 - An artificial fruit beverage contains 11.0 g of...Ch. 16 - A buffer is made by dissolving 12.5 g of sodium...Ch. 16 - Blood contains several acid base systems that tend...Ch. 16 - Codeine, C23H21NO3, is an alkaloid (Kb = 6 2 109)...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution obtained by mixing...Ch. 16 - Calculate the pH of a solution made up from 2.0 g...Ch. 16 - Find the pH of the solution obtained when 25 mL of...Ch. 16 - What is the pH of the solution obtained by...Ch. 16 - Ionization of the first proton from H2SO4 is...Ch. 16 - Ionization of the first proton from H2SeO4 is...Ch. 16 - Methylammonium chloride is a salt of methylamine,...Ch. 16 - Sodium benzoate is a salt of benzoic acid,...Ch. 16 - Each of the following statements concerns a 0.010...Ch. 16 - Each of the following statements concerns a 0.10 M...Ch. 16 - A 0.288-g sample of an unknown monoprotic organic...Ch. 16 - A 0.239-g sample of unknown organic base is...Ch. 16 - a Draw a pH titration curve that represents the...Ch. 16 - a Draw a pH titration curve that represents the...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium equations and Ka values for three...Ch. 16 - The equilibrium equations and Ka values for three...Ch. 16 - A 25.0-mL sample of hydroxylamine is titrated to...Ch. 16 - A 25.00-mL sample contains 0.562 g of NaHCO3. 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