   Chapter 16.3, Problem 16.6E General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
ISBN: 9781305580343

Solutions

Chapter
Section General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
ISBN: 9781305580343
Textbook Problem

What is the hydronium-ion concentration of a 0.20 M solution of ammonia in water? See Table 16.2 for Kb.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hydronium ion concentration of a 0.20 M solution of ammonia in water has to be calculated

Concept Information:

Base ionization constant:

The ionization of a weak base B is given by the below equation.

B(aq)+H2O(l)HB+(aq)+OH-(aq)

The equilibrium expression for the ionization of weak base B will be,

Kb=[HB+][OH-][B]

Where,

Kb is base ionization constant,

[OH] is concentration of hydroxide ion

[HB+]   is concentration of conjugate acid

[B] is concentration of the base

pOH definition:

The pOH of a solution is defined as the negative base-10 logarithm of the hydroxide ion [OH-] concentration. pOH Scale is analogous to pH scale.

pOH=-log[OH-]

Relationship between pH and pOH

pH+pOH=14,at25oC

To Calculate: The hydronium ion concentration of a 0.20 M solution of ammonia in water

Explanation

Given data:

The concentration of ammonia solution = 0.20 M

The Kb value of ammonia is 1.8×10-5

Concentration of hydrogen ion and acetate ion:

Set up the equilibrium table for the hydrolysis of ammonia reaction.

Let x be the unknown concentration

 NH3(aq)+H2O(l)     ⇄        OH-(aq)   +     NH4+(aq) Initial (M) 0.20 -x 0.20-x 0.00 0.00 Change (M) +x +x Equilibrium (M) x x

The Kb value of ammonia is 1.8×10-5

Kb =[NH4+][OH-][NH3]1.8×105 =(x)(x)0

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