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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

What is the valence electron configuration of Group 6A (16) elements? What are some property differences between oxygen and polonium? What are the Lewis structures for the two allotropic forms of oxygen? What is the molecular structure and the bond angle in ozone? The most stable form of solid sulfur is the rhombic form; however, a solid form called monoclinic sulfur can also form. What is the difference between rhombic and monoclinic sulfur? Explain why O2 is much more stable than S2 or SO. When SO2(g) or SO3(g) reacts with water, an acidic solution forms. Explain. What are the molecular structures and bond angles in SO2 and SO3? H2SO4 is a powerful dehydrating agent: What does this mean?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon Group 6A (16) elements are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The most stable form of solid sulfur is rhombic sulfur. But it can also form monoclinic sulfur. The difference between rhombic and monoclinic form lies in the arrangement of atoms in space. Rhombic sulfur contains stacked S8 rings and when it is heated, it forms monoclinic sulfur as it slowly cools. Monoclinic sulfur crystals are long and thin rectangular prisms.

To determine: The answers of various questions based upon Group 6A (16) elements.

Explanation

Explanation

The valence electronic configuration of Group 6A (16) elements is ns2np4 . The difference between properties of oxygen and polonium is that polonium can lose electrons to form cations whereas oxygen cannot lose electrons. Polonium exhibits chemistry involving +4 cations. Polonium is highly toxic and radioactive whereas oxygen is not toxic.

The two allotropic forms of oxygen is dioxygen and reactive ozone.

The number of valence electrons in oxygen is six. Hence total valence electrons in dioxygen is 6+6=12 . Two lone pairs of electrons are present on each oxygen atom and the two oxygen atoms are joined by double bond. Therefore Lewis structure of dioxygen is,

Figure 1

The lewis structure of ozone is,

Figure 2

There are three lone pairs of electrons on oxygen while two lone pairs of electrons on another oxygen. The central oxygen has one lone pair of electron. Therefore, the molecular structure of ozone is bent. The bond angle is 117o due to compression from lone pairs of electrons.

The most stable form of solid sulfur is rhombic sulfur. But it can also form monoclinic sulfur. The difference between rhombic and monoclinic form lies in the arrangement of atoms in space. Rhombic sulfur contains stacked S8 rings and when it is heated, it forms monoclinic sulfur as it slowly cools. Monoclinic sulfur crystals are long and thin rectangular prisms.

The O2 molecule is much more stable than S2 or SO because of much stronger pi bonding between oxygen atoms than between a sulfur and an oxygen atom

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