The description of elution. Concept introduction: A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

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Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213
BuyFind

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213

Solutions

Chapter 26, Problem 26.1QAP

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of elution.

Concept introduction: A definition is used to describe the meaning of a term and this term can be a word, phrase, or other sets of symbols. There are two types of definitions and they are intentional definitions, which try to give the sense of a term and extensional definitions, which proceed by listing the objects that a term describes.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

Elution is defined as the process of extracting the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of mobile phase.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

In Chromatography two phases are present these are following.

  1. Stationary phase
  2. Mobile phase- The phase of chromatography which flow from the stationary phase of the chromatography and carry the component of the mixture with the phase.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of stationary phase.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

In chromatography two phases are present these are following.

  1. Stationary phase- The solid or liquid phase of chromatography in which the solid material is absorbed which is separated from the mixture is called stationary phase.
  2. Mobile phase

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of distribution constant.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

The ratio of concentration of the solute of the stationary phase of the chromatography to the concentration of the solute of the mobile phase of the chromatography is called distribution constant.

The expression of distribution constant is:

  K=( a A )S( a A )M ........ (I)

Here, the concentration of the solute of the stationary phase of the chromatography is (aA)S and the concentration of the solute of the mobile phase of the chromatography is (aA)M .

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of retention time.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The sum of the stationary phase time and the mobile phase time of chromatography is called retention time.

The expression of retention time is:

  tR=tS+tM ........ (II)

Here, the stationary phase time is tS and the mobile phase time is tM .

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of the retention factor.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The ratio of the product of the distribution constant and the volume of the stationary phase of chromatography to the volume of the mobile phase of chromatography is called retention factor.

The expression of retention factor is:

  k=KVSVM ........ (III)

Here, the volume of the stationary phase of chromatography is VS , the volume of the mobile phase of chromatography is VM and the distribution constant is K .

(g)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of the volumetric flow rate.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The ratio of volume of the fluid in the mobile phase of chromatography to the time needed to pass the volume of the fluid from the mobile phase of chromatography is called volume flow rate.

The expression of volume flow rate is:

  Q=dVdt ........ (IV)

Here, the volume of the fluid in the mobile phase of chromatography is dV and the time needed to pass the volume of the fluid from the mobile phase of chromatography is dt .

(h)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of the linear flow velocity.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The volumetric flow rate of the fluid per unit cross sectional area of the column from which the fluid is flow is called linear flow velocity.

(i)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of selectivity factor.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The ratio of the distribution constant of highly retained species of chromatography to the distribution constant of less retained species of chromatography is called selectivity factor.

The expression of selectivity factor is:

  α=KBKA ....... (V)

Here, the distribution constant of highly retained species of chromatography is KB and the distribution constant of less retained species of chromatography is KA .

(j)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of the plate height.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The ratio of the variance of chromatography to the length of the column is called plate height.

The expression of plate height is:

  H=σ2L ........ (VI)

Here, the variance of chromatography is σ2 and the length of the column is L .

(k)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of the column resolution.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

In the chromatography, column is the pathway for the reaction to take place. The column resolution is obtained from the width of the first point and that of the second point.

The expression of Column resolution is:

  RS=2ΔZWA+WB ........ (VII)

Here, the width of the pick at first point is WA and the width of the pick at second point is WB .

(l)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The description of the longitudinal diffusion.

Concept introduction: Chromatography is defined as the process of separating the mixture of substance or one material from another material or component of the substance or material.

Expert Solution

Explanation of Solution

The process of migration of solute from a concentrated centre of a band of chromatography to the dilute region in other side of chromatography is called longitudinal diffusion.

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