# The six factors which are significant in the optimization of the electrothermal AAS method needs to be listed. The physical basis of each factor and their important needs to be explained. Concept Introduction: Generally, the optimization methods are basically used in order to maximize or minimize the parameters of study. In this way, cost in the production can be minimized and profit can be maximized. It involves the minimization of raw material and increase in productivity. ### Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213 ### Principles of Instrumental Analysis

7th Edition
Douglas A. Skoog + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305577213

#### Solutions

Chapter 9, Problem 9.23QAP

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

## Interpretation: The six factors which are significant in the optimization of the electrothermal AAS method needs to be listed. The physical basis of each factor and their important needs to be explained.Concept Introduction: Generally, the optimization methods are basically used in order to maximize or minimize the parameters of study. In this way, cost in the production can be minimized and profit can be maximized. It involves the minimization of raw material and increase in productivity.

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

### Interpretation: The priori method and the method described in given section needs to be compared. The use of priori method to improve the method define by IUPAC also, the disadvantage of using this method needs to be explained. Concept Introduction: In instrumentation analysis, the detection limit or limit of detection (LOD) can be confused with analytical sensitivity. The LOD is the lowest quantity of substance which can be differentiated from the blank value (absence of the substance) with stated confidence level. This level is generally 99%.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

### Interpretation: This is to be explained how the mentioned data for the investigations described by carbon and Bihan is smoothed. The experimental variable which is optimized in the smoothing procedure needs to be determined. The way of defining the smoothing window and the effect of the smoothing procedure on the LOD determined by the workers needs to be explained. The effect on the determination of the integration window for the instrumental signal needs to be explained. Concept introduction: The signal-to-noise enhancement devices are nowadays replaced by computer programs. These programs include various types of averaging, Fourier transformation, digital filtering, correlation techniques and smoothing. The procedures are applied on irregular waveforms for example, adsorption spectrum.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

### Interpretation: The outcome of the comparison of the determination of the signal magnitude by measuring the peak signals and integration needs to be explained. The results need to be explained on the basis of signal to noise enhancement procedures. Concept Introduction: In the analytical signal processing, the integration of the digitized signals is done. It is used mainly as a method of measuring areas under the peak type signals curves. In the chromatography technique, this peak area measurements are important to be performed.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

### Interpretation: The integration of the instrument signals needs to be explained. The alternative numerical procedure for the same needs to be explained. The effect of the procedural variables on the quality and effect of the signal integration on the working curves for Pb needs to be explained. Concept Introduction: The boxcar averaging is done for smoothing the irregularities present in the signal and to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in the waveform.

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

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