Chemistry - 13th Edition - by Raymond Chang Dr., Jason Overby Professor - ISBN 9781259911156
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13th Edition
Raymond Chang Dr., Jason Overby Professor
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN: 9781259911156

Solutions for Chemistry

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Chapter 2.1 - The Atomic TheoryChapter 2.3 - Atomlc Number, Mass Number, And IsotopesChapter 2.4 - The Periodic TableChapter 2.5 - Molecules And IonsChapter 2.6 - Chemical FormulasChapter 2.7 - Naming CompoundsChapter 2.8 - Introduction To Organic CompoundsChapter 3 - Mass Relationships In Chemical ReactionsChapter 3.1 - Atomic MassChapter 3.2 - Avogadro's Number And The Molar Mass Of An ElementChapter 3.3 - Molecular MassChapter 3.5 - Percent Composition Of CompoundsChapter 3.6 - Experimental Determination Of Empirical FormulasChapter 3.7 - Chemical Reactions And Chemical EquationsChapter 3.8 - Amount Of Reactants And ProductsChapter 3.9 - Limiting ReagentsChapter 3.10 - Reaction YieldChapter 4 - Reactions In Aqueous SolutionsChapter 4.1 - General Properties Of Aqueous SolutionsChapter 4.2 - Precipitation ReactionsChapter 4.3 - Acid-base ReactionsChapter 4.4 - Oxidation-reduction ReactionsChapter 4.5 - Concentration Of SolutionsChapter 4.6 - Gravimetric AnalysisChapter 4.7 - Acid-base TitrationsChapter 4.8 - Redox TitrationsChapter 5 - GasesChapter 5.2 - Pressure Of A GasChapter 5.3 - The Gas LawsChapter 5.4 - The Ideal Gas EquationChapter 5.5 - Gas StoichiometryChapter 5.6 - Dalton's Law Of Partial PressuresChapter 5.7 - The Kinetic Molecular Theory Of GasesChapter 5.8 - Deviation From Ideal BehaviourChapter 6 - ThermochemistryChapter 6.2 - Energy Changes In Chemical ReactionsChapter 6.3 - Introduction To ThermodynamicsChapter 6.4 - Enthalpy Of Chemical ReactionsChapter 6.5 - CalorimetryChapter 6.6 - Standard Enthalpies Of Formation And ReactionChapter 6.7 - Heat Of Solution And DilutionChapter 7 - Quantum Theory And The Electronic Structure Of AtomsChapter 7.1 - From Classical Physics To Quantum TheoryChapter 7.2 - The Photoelectric EffectChapter 7.3 - Bohr's Theory Of The Hydrogen AtomChapter 7.4 - The Dual Nature Of The ElectronChapter 7.5 - Quantum MechanicsChapter 7.6 - Quantum NumbersChapter 7.7 - Atomic OrbitalsChapter 7.8 - Electron ConfigurationChapter 7.9 - The Building-up PrincipleChapter 8 - Periodic Relationships Among The ElementsChapter 8.2 - Periodic Classification Of The ElementsChapter 8.3 - Periodic Variation In Physical PropertiesChapter 8.4 - Ionization EnergyChapter 8.5 - Electron AffinityChapter 8.6 - Variation In Chemical Properties Of The Representative ElementsChapter 9 - Chemical Bonding I: Basic ConceptsChapter 9.1 - Lewis Dot SymbolsChapter 9.2 - The Ionic BondChapter 9.3 - Lattice Energy Of Ionic CompoundsChapter 9.4 - The Covalent BondChapter 9.5 - ElectronegativityChapter 9.6 - Writing Lewis StructuresChapter 9.7 - Formal Charge And Lewis StructuresChapter 9.8 - The Concept Of ResonanceChapter 9.9 - Exceptions To The Octet RuleChapter 9.10 - Bond EnthalpyChapter 10 - Chemical Bonding Ii: Molecular Geometry And Hybridization Of Atomic OrbitalsChapter 10.1 - Molecular GeometryChapter 10.2 - Dipole MomentsChapter 10.3 - Valence Bond TheoryChapter 10.4 - Hybridization Of Atomic OrbitalsChapter 10.5 - Hybridization In Molecules Containing Double And Triple BondsChapter 10.6 - Molecular Orbital TheoryChapter 10.7 - Molecular Orbital ConfigurationsChapter 10.8 - Delocalized Molecular OrbitalsChapter 11 - Intermolecular Forces And Liquids And SolidsChapter 11.2 - Intermolecular ForcesChapter 11.3 - Properties Of LiquidsChapter 11.4 - Crystal StructureChapter 11.5 - X-ray Diffraction By CrystalsChapter 11.6 - Types Of CrystalsChapter 11.8 - Phase ChangesChapter 11.9 - Phase DiagramsChapter 12 - Physical Properties Of SolutionsChapter 12.2 - A Molecular View Of The Solution ProcessChapter 12.3 - Concentration UnitsChapter 12.4 - The Effect Of Temperature On SolubilityChapter 12.5 - The Effect Of Pressure On The Solubility Of GasesChapter 12.6 - Colligative Properties Of Nonelectrolyte SolutionsChapter 12.7 - Colligative Properties Of Electrolyte SolutionsChapter 13 - Chemical KineticsChapter 13.1 - The Rate Of A ReactionChapter 13.2 - The Rate LawChapter 13.3 - The Relation Between Reactant Concentration And TimeChapter 13.4 - Activation Energy And Temperature Dependence Of Rate ConstantsChapter 13.5 - Reaction MechanismsChapter 13.6 - CatalysisChapter 14 - Chemical EquilibriumChapter 14.1 - The Concept Of Equilibrium And The Equilibrium ConstantChapter 14.2 - Writing Equilibrium Constant ExpressionsChapter 14.3 - The Relationship Between Chemical Kinetics And Chemical EquilibriumChapter 14.4 - What Does The Equilibrium Constant Tell Us?Chapter 14.5 - Factors That Affect Chemical EquilibriumChapter 15 - Acids And BasesChapter 15.1 - Bronsted Acids And BasesChapter 15.2 - The Acid-base Properties Of WaterChapter 15.3 - Ph-a Measure Of AcidityChapter 15.4 - Strength Of Acids And BasesChapter 15.5 - Weak Acids And Acid Ionization ConstantsChapter 15.6 - Weak Bases And Base Ionization ConstantsChapter 15.7 - The Relationship Between The Ionization Constants Of Acids And Their Conjugate BasesChapter 15.8 - Diprotic And Polyprotic AcidsChapter 15.9 - Molecular Structure And The Strength Of AcidsChapter 15.10 - Acid-base Properties Of SaltsChapter 15.11 - Acid-base Properties Of Oxides And HydroxidesChapter 15.12 - Lewis Acids And BasesChapter 16 - Acid-base Equilibria And Solubility EquilibriaChapter 16.2 - The Common Ion EffectChapter 16.3 - Buffer SolutionsChapter 16.4 - Acid-base TitrationsChapter 16.5 - Acid-base IndicatorsChapter 16.6 - Solubility EquilibriaChapter 16.7 - Separation Of Ions By Fractional PrecipitationChapter 16.8 - The Common Ion Effect And SolubilityChapter 16.9 - Ph And SolubilityChapter 16.10 - Complex Ion Equilibria And SolubilityChapter 16.11 - Applications Of The Solubility Product Principle To Qualitative AnalysisChapter 17 - Entropy, Free Energy, And EquilibriumChapter 17.3 - EntropyChapter 17.4 - The Second Law Of ThermodynamicsChapter 17.5 - Gibbs Free EnergyChapter 17.6 - Free Energy And Chemical EquilibriumChapter 18 - ElectrochemistryChapter 18.1 - Redox ReactionsChapter 18.2 - Galvanic CellsChapter 18.3 - Standard Reduction PotentialsChapter 18.4 - Thermodynamics Of Redox ReactionsChapter 18.5 - The Effect Of Concentration Of Cell EmfChapter 18.6 - Batteries And Fuel CellsChapter 18.7 - CorrosionChapter 18.8 - ElectrolysisChapter 19 - Nuclear ChemistryChapter 19.1 - The Nature Of Nuclear ReactionsChapter 19.2 - Nuclear StabilityChapter 19.3 - Natural RadioactivityChapter 19.4 - Nuclear TransmutationChapter 19.5 - Nuclear FissionChapter 20 - Chemistry In The AtmosphereChapter 20.2 - Phenomena In The Outer Layers Of The AtmosphereChapter 20.5 - The Greenhouse EffectChapter 20.8 - Indoor PollutionChapter 21 - Metallurgy And The Chemistry Of MetalsChapter 21.3 - Band Theory Of ConductivityChapter 22 - Nonmetallic Elements And Their CompoundsChapter 23 - Transition Metals Chemistry And Coordination CompoundsChapter 23.1 - Properties Of The Transition MetalsChapter 23.3 - Coordination CompoundsChapter 23.4 - Structure Of Coordination CompoundsChapter 23.5 - Bonding To Coordination Compounds: Crystal Field TheoryChapter 24 - Organic ChemistryChapter 24.2 - Aliphatic HydrocarbonsChapter 24.3 - Atomatic HydrocarbonsChapter 24.4 - Chemistry Of Functional GroupsChapter 25 - Synthetic And Natural Organic Polymers

Sample Solutions for this Textbook

We offer sample solutions for Chemistry homework problems. See examples below:

Different units are there to represent temperature scales. Conversion of temperature units in...To determine: The mass of gold coin in grams The unit of troy ounce is used for metal such as gold...Given data: concentration = 8.00×102 ppmlength = 17.6 mwidth= 8.80 mheight = 2.64 m Volume can be...α particles Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation by a substance. When substances...For 23He, the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons is calculated as follows, ZAX = 23HeZ...For 715N, the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons is calculated as follows, ZAX =715NZ...Given: Number of protons: 25 Number of neutrons: 27 Number of electrons: 25 Z (atomic number) = No....Na2CrO4 has sodium Na, chromium Cr and oxygen O atoms. According to the nomenclature rules the...KClO has potassium K, chromium Cr and oxygen O atoms. Cation of the compound is K+ and anion of the...Nitrite is NO2− anion and Rubidium here is Rubidium cation Rb+. Hence formula of the given compound...With reference to table 2.3 in the text book, anions and cations formed by various elements are...SO2 is a heteronuclear diatomic molecule made up of Sulfur and Oxygen atoms. Many such SO2 molecules...Given unknown element is X1020 . Where, an atomic number of this element is 10. The element with...The atom consists of concentrated mass called nucleus at the centre and surrounded by the electrons....Element symbol is given as ZAX. Here, A represent the mass number and Z represent the atomic number....The given name is Magnesium bicarbonate. The cation and anion present in the compound are Mg2+ and...Atomic mass unit is defined as a mass exactly equal to one-twelfth the mass of one carbon-12 atom....The given molecular formulas are recorded as shown above. Record the given data (a) LiCO3 (b) CS2...Let’s calculate the number of carbon atoms in 7.14×103 g of dimethyl sulfoxide. First we convert...Percent composition by mass: percent composition by mass of each element present in a compound is...To determine: The percent composition by mass of Sn and O in SnO2 Percent composition by mass:...Percent composition by mass: percent composition by mass of each element present in a compound is...Molecular mass of urea is calculated as follows: Molecular formula of urea is(NH2)2CO Molecular mass...Percent composition by mass: percent composition by mass of each element present in a compound is...The given unbalanced chemical equation is,C + O2 → CO Balanced chemical equation of a reaction is...To write balanced equation for N2O5→N2O4+O2 List the atoms of given equation and the number of each...Given data: Propane is a component of natural gas and is used in domestic cooking and heating. The...Pentane is a hydrocarbon. Burning of hydrocarbon in oxygen is combustion reaction. Carbon dioxide...The mass of produced HNO3 is given as, 1 ton = 2000 lb1 ton = 2000 lb × 453.6g1 lb = 907200g...Given, Mass of CsI is 0.764g The number of cesium ions and iodide ions are calculated using molar...In given reaction, Mixture of CH4 and C2H6 are burned in O2. Therefore, The chemical equation for...In the given chemical reactions, octane (C8H18) undergoes complete as well incomplete combustion to...To determine: the balanced chemical equations for the given chemical reaction of formation of NH3....The solute is a substance, which is present in the small quantity in solution. The solvent is a...Except Li+ , Na+ , K+ , Rb+ , Cs+ and NH4+ ions, compounds containing carbonate, phosphate, chromate...According to the solubility guideline, CaCO3 is contains carbonate ion so it is insoluble in water.The ionic compounds are dissolved in water to produced ions these ions are combined to give new...The ionic compounds are dissolved in water to produced ions these ions are combined to give new...The oxidation number of Sulfur inH2S In H2S there is one Sulfur, two Hydrogen atoms. The sum of...Te oxidation number of Cl inClF According to the rules, the Inter halogen compounds the Fluorine is...The oxidation number of Cs in Cs2O According to the rules, the sum of oxidation numbers of all the...The oxidation number of N2 in Mg3N2 According to the rules, the alkaline earth metals always having...Given, The concentration of solution is 0.100M The volume of solution is 2.50×102mL The number of...Equation for the reaction is NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O Initial concentration of the HCl solution Mc =...The oxidation and reduction of chemical compounds takes place while they are involved in the...Describe the preparation of Magnesium hydroxide and predict and it solubility in water (a) Magnesium...Record the given data, Mass of NaCl and KCl mixture = 0.8870 g Mass of produced AgCl precipitate =...To record the given data, Taken mass KMnO4 of in first dilution = 0.8214 g Final Volume of KMnO4 in...Copper wire metal is treated with concentrated Nitric acid to gives Copper (II) nitrate. Cu(s) +...The given volume and masses of NaOH and Mg(NO3)2 their solutions are recorded as shown above. To...If the conductance unit will be twice its concentration (molarity), when compound is completely...Gases that exist as elements: Gases that contain only one type of atom are known to be from...The mole of the compound is calculated by plugging in the values of the given volume, Pressure and...Chemical equation for the reaction is written as follows: NH3(g) + HCl(g) → NH4Cl(s) To determine...Unbalanced equation is written below: C2H5OH(l) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O(l) Carbon is balanced by...First, we calculate the mole fraction Methane from the mixture. Then, we can calculate the partial...The mole fraction of the gases in atmosphere is given as follows: χN2 = 0.7808 χO2 = 0.2094 χAr =...Record the given data Mass of N2 is 14.01 g/mole Mass of O2 is 16.00 g/mole Temperature is −23οC...The moles Nitro-glycerine You can map out the following strategy to solve for the total volume of...To calculate the initial number of moles of O2 and NO nNO = PNOVRT = (0.500 atm) (4.00 L)(0.08206L ....Calculate the moles of CO2 produced using the ideal gas equation. nCO2 =PVRT = (1.24 atm)(1.67...This is a Boyle’s law problem, pressure and volume vary. Suppose that the pressure at the water...To find the given reaction of equation CaO(s) +CO2(g) → CaCO3(s)BaO(s) +CO2(g)→BaCO3(s) Calcium...To calculate the rate of CO production 188 g CO1 h × 1 mol CO28.01 g CO × 1 h60 min = 0.112 mol...To convert density to units of g/L 0.426 kg1 m3 × 1000 g1 kg × (0.01 m1 cm)3 × 1000 cm31 L = 0.426...To calculate the moles of water vapour per liter using the ideal gas equation P =nRTV nV=PRT = 1.0...Given data, MgCO3 and CaCO3 mixture of mass is 6.26 g P = 1.12 atmV=1.73 LT = 48+273= 321K Calculate...Bulb (b) contains the same number of particles as (a), but is half the volume. The pressure will be...Given: Pressure is 0.027 mmHg Volume is 8.5 × 108 L The mass of the helium in the balloon can be...System: System can be defined as portion of universe. The physical and chemical changes of substance...Standard enthalpy of formation of C2H4=52.3 kJ mol-1 Standard enthalpy of formation of O2=0 kJ mol-1...Calculate the ΔH°reaction for the first equation Two moles of Graphite are needed; hence the first...Some changes in the reactions and their enthalpies are made to get the enthalpy of formation of...Standard enthalpy of formation of NH3=-46.3 kJ mol-1 Standard enthalpy of formation of N2=0 kJ mol-1...Given, Mole percent of Hydrogen is 28.4 mole. Mole percent of Methane is 71.6 mole. Volume of the...To calculate the heat produced The equation can be given as, CH4(g)+2O2(g)→CO2(g)+2H2O(l) Standard...The combustion reaction is given as, C2H6(l)+72O2(g)→2CO2(g)+3H2O(l) The heat released during the...Record the given data Volume and Molarity of Silver Nitrate = 50.0 mL & 0.100 M Initial...The standard enthalpy of neutralization of HF(aq) is calculated as, ΔH° =...Standard enthalpy of formation of CO2= -393.5 kJ mol-1 Standard enthalpy of formation of Water =...The chemical equations can be given, C6H6(l)+152O2(g)→6CO2(g)+3H2O(l) ΔH°=-3267.4 kJ...Calcium carbide upon reaction with Water gives Calcium hydroxide and Acetylene. The chemical...To calculate the moles of H2O Mass of Water = 500 g Moles of Water = 500 g×1 mol H2O18.02 g H2O...The ΔHhydr of KI is calculated below, (1) Na+(g)+Cl-(g)→Na+(aq)+Cl-(aq) ΔHhydr = (4.0-788)kJ/mole =...The raise in energy consumption is roughly 100×1015 kJ per decade. Assume the raise in energy comes...The wave can be in any forms which are shown in the below diagram. Figure.1 The wavelength is the...The speed, wavelength and frequency of a wave are related by c = λν where λ and ν are expressed in...To find: Calculate the wavelength of the photon needed to excite an electron from the given energy...An electron in the hydrogen atom makes a transition from an energy state of principal quantum number...The integer at the beginning of the orbital designation is n. Hence, n in the given orbital, 3s is...There is an s subshell in every shell and each s subshell contains just one orbital. In one orbital,...If l = 0, the number of possible magnetic quantum number (ml) values are calculated using the...Al is placed in IIIA group of the periodic table. Its atomic number is 13. Therefore, Al has 13...Boron (B) is placed in IIIA group of the periodic table. Its atomic number is 5. Therefore, boron...Ge is placed in IVA group of the periodic table. Its atomic number is 32. Therefore, Ge has 32...For a given value of n, the possible number of orbitals involved is n2. When n = 2, 4 (22) orbitals...The energy difference (ΔE) between ni = 2 and nf = 1 associated with the Lyman series is calculated...When one of helium’s electrons is removed, the resulting species is the helium ion, He+. The He+ ion...The electron configurations generally refer to gaseous atoms in their ground states. An atom may...Ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom. It is usually...The given lines are corresponding to n = 2. Line A has longest wavelength or lowest energy...In Mendeleev’s periodic table the elements were arranged by increasing order of atomic mass, group...They are group I elements. The outer shell of alkali metals contains one valence electron. Lithium,...Since only the valence electrons involve in bonding, electrons present in the outermost shell of an...Since only the valence electrons involve in bonding, electrons present in the outermost shell of an...The orbitals are filled according to Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle and Hund's Rule....The orbitals are filled according to Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle and Hund's Rule....The orbitals are filled according to Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle and Hund's Rule....The orbitals are filled according to Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle and Hund's Rule....The number of electrons and protons in the given set of species (a) is, SpeciesTotal number of...The reaction is given below: Mg(g) + 2 F(g) → Mg2+(g) + 2 F −(g) Here, two electrons are removed...The reaction is given as: Li(g) → Li3+(g) + 3 e− The energy needed for the process is 1.96 × 104...The graph that shows the ionization energies for the given elements is drawn considering the given...Molecular oxygen is prepared from KClO3. Reaction for the preparation of molecular oxygen can be...Rubidium reacts with water to give RbOH and molecular hydrogen. Reaction can be given as: Rb(s) +...The reason that supports the placement of Ar before K and Analyze the position of argon and...The reaction is given below: Cl−(g) → Cl+(g) + 2 e− Here, one electron is removed from Cl− which is...Lewis dot symbol represents the number of valence electrons of an atom or constituent atoms bonded...Electronic configuration of I is 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p5. It shows there are seven...Given data: heat of sublimation of Na = 108 kJ/molΔHf°(NaCl) = −411 kJ/molenergy needed to...Given data: heat of sublimation of Ca = 121 kJ/molΔHf°(NaCl) = −795 kJ/molenergy needed to...To find: The correct Lewis structure for the given molecule. The given structure of the molecule is...Determine the resonance structure for HCO2-. In the case of chlorate ion, the chemical bonding of a...In the case of hydrazoic acid, the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a...The given atomic arrangement of diazomethane is CH2N2. Resonance structure of hydrazoic acid is...In the case of OCN−, the chemical bonding of a molecule cannot be represented using a single Lewis...Calculation of ΔH° The given reaction is, 2 C2H6(g)+ 7 O2(g) → 4 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g) Reactants O2 has...The given reaction is, Li(g)+ I(g) → Li(g)++ I(g)− With reference to table 8.3 and 8.4, electron...Total valence electrons in CH3OH is, (valence e- on C )+ (valence e- on H)+(valence e- on O) =...The decomposition reaction is, 4C3H5N3O9(l)→12CO2(g)+ 10 H2O(g)+ 6 N2(g)+ O2(g) Reduce the equation...Given data: heat of sublimation of Mg = 148 kJ/mol The first step of Born-Haber cycle involves...Total valence electrons in O4 is, 4(valence e- on O) = 4(6) = 24 Accordingly Lewis structure of O4...Molecular geometry is the spatial arrangement of atoms on a molecule and/ or ions. It is the three...To predict: The geometry for the given molecule. Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule (a) First...To predict: The geometry for the given molecule. Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule (a) First...To predict: The geometry for the given molecule. Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule (a) First...To predict: The geometry for the given molecule. Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule (a) First...Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule (a) First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is...In the given molecule, the hybrid orbitals of each carbon atom are shown below:Comparison of N23- and O2- based on the molecular orbital diagram: Isoelectric nature: From the...To find: The bond angle of the given molecule Given molecule is . Lewis structure of the given...It is known that sigma bond is formed by end-to-end overlap. So, rotation about 180o cannot break...In molecular orbital theory, when the bonding takes place the atomic orbitals that take part combine...Given molecule is CO. Lewis structure of carbon monoxide is drawn below. The total number of valence...Given: The order of molecular orbitals of NO is similar to that of O2. The molecular orbitals of O2:...An example for Dipole-Dipole interaction is between LiF molecules. The intermolecular force existing...Xe and Ne are mono-atomic gases, so they are nonpolar molecules. Therefore, only dispersion forces...Sodium is a highly electropositive metal and Oxygen is a highly electronegative non-metal. The...In simple cubic unit cell each sphere at the corner of the cubic unit cell is shared by eight other...Record the given data: edge length of unit cell = 287 pmdensity of Iron = 7.87 g/cm3 The unit cell...One mole of Barium has mass of 137.3 g. Density of Barium is given. Volume of one mole of Barium is...Europium crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice (the Eu atoms occupy only the lattice...Record the given data: edge length of unit cell = 543 pmdensity of Silicon = 2.33 g/cm3 The unit...The amount of heat needed to convert ice to steam can be calculated as shown here: 1st phase...Vapor pressure of benzene at 7.6°C is given. Molar heat of vaporization of benzene is given. Vapor...Figure 1 The crystal structure of CsCl is simple cubic. The types of ions are: Cs+ ionCl- ions...The normal boiling point of trichlorosilane can be calculated using the Clausisus-Clapeyron...Calculating the packing efficiency for a simple cubic unit cell: Edge length is a = 2r The relation...Solid Argon has cubic close packing structure with face-centered cubic unit cells. The atomic radius...One mole of Iron has mass of 55.84 g. Density of Iron is given. Volume of one mole of Iron is...Given data: Vapor pressure (P) : 19.2 mmHg Temperature (T):1235K Volume (V): 0.843L It is known that...To explain difference between saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solution Saturated solution:...Given data: Strength of NaCl solution = 2.50M Density of NaCl solution = 1.08 g /mL Calculate mass...Calculate the molalities of the following aqueous solutions: (a) 1.22 M sugar (C12H22O11) solution...Given data Vapor pressure of Ethanol at 20°C = 44 mmHg Vapor pressure of Methanol at 20°C = 94 mmHg...Given data: Mass of H2O=450g Vapor pressure = 2.50mmHg Temperature = 30oC Vapor pressure of H2O at...Explanation ofCaCl2solution has higher boiling point than urea CaCl2is an ionic compound and thus...To record the given data Amount of water in which NaCl present = 135mL Amount of Sodium chloride =...Given data Molar mass of egg white = 13,930g Amount of enzyme which is dissolved in water = 0.100g...Given: Partial pressure of Oxygen in air =0.20 atm Partial pressure of Nitrogen in air = 0.80 atm...The Lewis structures are as follows, The given molecule acetone is polar whereas the molecule carbon...Given data: Molar mass of liquid A = 100g/mol Molar mass of liquid B = 110g/mol Vapour pressure of A...Given: Beaker 1= 50mL of 0.10M Beaker 250mL of 0.20M In order to calculate the mole fraction of urea...Given data are recorded as shown. To calculate mole fraction of total solution...Given data: m =Md-M.M'1000 Where, d- Density of the solution (g/mL) M’- Molar mass of the solute...The increase in boiling point of salted solution is calculated by first determining the...To explain rate of reaction If reaction rate is high the reaction complete very soon and give the...The given reaction is, N2(g)+3H2(g)→2NH3(g) We have to calculate the rate of ammonia in the above...Given, rate = k[NO2]2 Order of this reaction is the sum of the powers to which all reactant...The given reaction is 2NaOBr(g)→2NO(g)+Br2(g) The reaction follows second order kinetics. Rate...The given first order reaction is, A→ B For first order reaction, Rate = k[A] In the given diagram A...The given first order reaction is, X→ Y For first order reaction, Rate = k[X] X molecules are placed...Some reactions are described as parallel in that the reactant simultaneously forms different...The given reaction is CH3COCH3+Br2→Catlyst H+CH3COCH2Br + H++Br- The rate law for the above reaction...From the given information, A and B both were decomposed by first-order kinetics. Therefore, we can...We can easily determine the rate constant of a reaction if half-life value is given by using...From the given information, the units of rate constant denotes a second-order reaction and the rate...Given, Gas mixture containing CH3 fragments, C2H6 molecules, and an inert gas (He) was prepared at...Given, Rate constants for the first order decomposition of an organic compound in solution are...The given reaction is, 2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g) The rate law expresses the relationship of the rate...Given plot of ln N versus t (year) is shown below, Figure 1 The plot of ln N versus t is linear for...Reason for correct option: For the given reaction (c), PCl3 (g) + 3NH3(g) ⇌ 3HCl(g) + P(NH2)3(g) The...The term applied to reversible chemical reactions. It is the point at which the rate of the forward...To find: The each reactant product equilibrium concentration should be identified given the gas...To find: Calculate the (Kc) values for given the statement of equilibrium reaction (a). Calculate...To find: The equilibrium reaction should be identified given the statement. Analyze the chemical...To find: The equilibrium reaction should be identified given the statement. Analyze the chemical...Given data: Kc = 54.3nH2 = 0.714 molnI2 = 0.984 molnHI = 0.886 molV = 2.40 L The reaction is given...Given data: ΔH1° = 260 kJ/molΔH2° = 35.7 kJ/mol The reactions at primary stage and at the secondary...To find: Calculate the each partial pressure (Kc) values for given the statement of NO2 and N2O4...Given data: Molar mass of the reacting mixture = 70.6 g/mol The reaction is given below: N2O4(g) ⇌ 2...For the given reaction, N2O4 (g) ⇌ 2NO2 (g) Given: Initially 1.0 mole of N2O4; at equilibrium α mole...Let’s write the Van’t Hoff equation at two different temperatures: At T1: lnK1= −ΔH∘RT1 + C ------...The given reaction is, SO2Cl2 (g) ⇌ SO2 (g) + Cl2 (g) Given: Total pressure is 9 atm; KP= 2.05; T=...Bronsted concepts of acid and base are one of the important concepts used to explain about an acid...(a) To classify: H2O as Bronsted acid or base, or both. To identify the species as Bronsted acid....From the given concentrations of benzoic acid solution and Ka value of benzoic acid, the hydrogen...From the given concentrations of hydrofluoric acid solution and its Ka value, the hydrogen ion...From the given concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid solution and its Ka value, the hydrogen ion...Record the given data A 0.10-M solution of ammonia at 25 oC. From the concentration and Kb of the...A simple relationship between the ionization constant of a weak acid (Ka) and the ionization...Record the given data H2SO4 is a strong acid The concentration of HCl solution is 0.040 M The...Record the given datas The concentration of H2CO3 solution is 0.025 M H2CO3 is a weak acid with a...Record the given datas CH3COOH(aq)+NO2- → CH3COO-(aq)+HNO2(aq) From the given data, we know that the...Record the given datas The ion product of D2O is 1.35×10−15 at 25∘C pD = -log[D+] The ion product of...Calculate the pH of a 2.00 M NH4CN solution.Given data: The concentration of H3PO4 solution is 0.100 M Species of H3PO4 H3PO4 is a triprotic...Given species AlCl4− can be formed by the reaction of AlCl3 with Cl−. In this reaction Cl− donates...Given data: The concentration of Na2CO3 solution is 0.100 M Ionization of Na2CO3 Na2CO3 is a weak...Calculate the pH of a solution that is 1.00 M HCN and 1.00 M HF. Compare the concentration (in...First we write the two separate equilibrium reactions with hydrogen carbonate functioning as basic...To explain: The changes of pH of a weak acid solution due to common ion effect. The equilibrium...The given concentrations are recorded as shown. The concentration of acetic acid and sodium acetate...The given concentrations are recorded as shown. The concentration of NH3 and NH4Cl are 0.20M and...To calculate the pH of buffer solution using the concentrations of components at equilibrium...The given concentrations of acetic acid and sodium acetate are 1.00M The number of moles of NaOH is...Amount of monoprotic acid is 0.1276 g Concentration of NaOH is 0.0633 M Calculate the number of...Concentration of acetic acid is 0.100 M Concentration of NaOH is 0.167 M Calculate the number of...Concentration of NaOH is 0.10 M Concentration of HCOOH is 0.10 M Find the concentration of sodium...Concentration of KOH is 0.200M Concentration of CH3COOH is 0.100 M CH3COOH(aq) +H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) +...Concentration of NH3 is 0.300M Concentration of HCl is 0.100 M Kb value for ammonia is 1.8 × 10-5 Kb...SrF2 = 7.3 × 10-2g/L Calculate the molar solubility = 7.3 × 10-2g SrF2 1L× 1 mol SrF2 125.6 g SrF2=...Given, The Ksp of PbBr2 is 8.9 × 10-6 Strength of KBr is 0.20M Strength of Pb(NO3)2 is 0.20M...The given data is recorded as such. 0.100 M HCl0.100 M CH3NH2 HCl(aq) + CH3NH2(aq) → CH3NH3Cl(aq)...CacH(aq) → Cac-(aq) + H+(aq) Initial concentration (M): 0.10 0 0 Change in concentration (M): -x +x...The dissociation of Na2CO3Na2CO3(s) →H2O2Na+(aq) + CO32-(aq) 2(0.050M) 0.050MConsider s be the molar...To define spontaneous process Spontaneous process can be defined as any process that is occurring...To record the given data Given, S°(Cu)=33.3 JK-1mol-1S°[H2O(g)]=188.7 JK-1mol-1S°(H2) =131.0J...The calcium carbonate decomposition equilibrium expression given by, CaCO3(s) ⇌ CaO(s) + CO2(g)Kp =...In each part of this problem we can use the following equation to calculate ΔG ΔG= ΔG0+...To record the given data ΔΗvap of benzene =31000Jmol-1Tbp of benzene = 80.1°C​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ =...The atmospheric equilibrium reaction of given the different terms of process (a) is shown below. a)....The silver chloride equilibrium reaction is, AgCl(s) ⇌ Ag2+(aq) + Cl−(aq)Ksp= [Ag+][Cl−]= 1.6×10−10⇒...Calculate the Gibbs free (ΔG0) and partial pressure (Kp) values for given reaction (a). (a). H2(g) +...The equilibrium constant is related to the to the standard free energy change by the given equation...First calculate the free energy (ΔG°) value for given reaction Fe(s) + 2H+(aq) → Fe2+(aq) +...The given reverse process reaction is, A+B → C+ xH+ Let us consider the following free energy...We calculate the equilibrium constant (Kp) from the ΔG° value A2(g) + B2(g) ⇌ 2AB(g) ΔG° =-RTln...Draw the balanced half –reaction and type of charge. Balancing redox equation Balancing each half...The given reaction is, Pb2+(aq)+Mg (s)⇌ Pb(s) + Mg2+ (aq) Lead ion is reduced and Magnesium is...There are two half-cell reactions are involved At anode, Mgs → Mg2+ + 2e − At cathode, Sn2+ + 2e − →...For the anode reaction (Oxidation) 2H2(g)+4OH-(aq)→ 4H2O(l)+4e- Number of charges passing through...Ideal gas equation can be used to calculate the number of moles of oxygen produced PV =nRTn =PVRTn...The amount of copper deposited during the electrolysis of CuBr2 can be calculated from the given...Calculation of standard emf Eocell value: A Daniel (Galvanic cell) cell consists of Zinc electrode...To calculate the standard electrode potential of the cell (E°cell) The standard electrode potential...To find the completely balanced chemical equation The overall cell reaction can be written as given...Cell A: The water is oxidized at the anode to produce O2and that it is easier to reduce Co2+ to Co...The standard reduction potential of Mg (+2) as follows, Mg(s) → Mg2+(aq)+2e− E0anode = −2.37 V The...To explain the how cell potential (Ecell) of Daniel cell changes when the cell equation is...To record the given data Gf°(ZnO)=-318.2KJmol-1ΔGf°(Zn)=0ΔGf°(O2)=0 To write the half cell reactions...Figure.1 For the given redox reactions, In the galvanic cell, Oxidation occurs at anode and...Figure.1 A galvanic concentration cell, each compartment consists of Co electrode in Co(NO3)2...Nuclear reactions are differing from ordinary chemical reaction by the following way. It’s briefly...In balancing nuclear equation, the sum of atomic number and the mass number must match on both sides...The binding energy is the energy required for the process He24→2p11+2n01 There are two proton and 2...Nuclear reaction can be written in the shorthand notation with the parentheses. Bombarding particle,...Nuclear reaction can be written in the shorthand notation with the parentheses. Bombarding particle,...Nuclear reaction can be written in the shorthand notation with the parentheses. Bombarding particle,...For the given 10B, there are5 protons and 5 neutrons. Mass of protons = 1.00728amuMass of 5 protons...Nuclear reaction can be written in the shorthand notation with the parentheses. Bombarding particle,...To find: for the balanced equation write Suitable abbreviation. Nuclear reaction can be written in...In case of Sr90 decay, the mass defect is Δm=(massY90+mass e-)-massSr90 =(-)3.7430× 10-5...Given diagram for the decay is, Figure 1 From the diagram the isotope can be identified, As is the...When Po-210 isotope decays by bombarding 209Bi with neutron. The balanced equation is 83209Bi +...Troposphere: It is the layer of earth atmosphere which has eighty percent of the net mass of air and...Given, Molar mass of air is 29.0g/mol Total mass of air is 5.25 × 1018kg The total moles of gases is...Given, 2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g) The rate law is written as rate constant multiplied by product of...Given, Temperature = 20.0 oC Total pressure = 756mmHg Length of the closed room = 17.6m Wide of the...Given, The balanced reaction between carbon monoxide and hemoglobin is given as CO(g) + HbO2(aq) ⇌...Given, Henry’s law constant = 0.032mol/L.atm 754 mmHg (atm. pressure)0.033% by volume of CO2 The...Given, PRn = 1.2 × 10-6mmHgt1/2 = 3.8days From the half-life period of radon, the rate constant is...Given, ΔHfo values in appendix three are given as, ΔHfo(NO) = 90.4 KJ/molΔHfo(O) = 249.4...Given, Every year 50 million tons of sulphur dioxide are released into atmosphere. The formation of...Given, CH3(CO)OONO2 → CH3(CO)OO + NO2k1 = 2.6×10-7s-1 T1 = -40oCk2 = 3.0×10-4s-1 T2 = 25oC The...Mineral: A mineral is naturally occurring substance with a wide range of chemical compositions in...Calcite is a carbonate mineral of calcium. So, the formula of calcite will have calcium and...The given chemical equation is: K(s) + H2O(l)→ The complete equation is: K(s) + H2O(l)→ KOH(aq)...Sodium metal reacts with water to produce sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Na(s) + H2O(l)...To determine ΔH∘ values for decomposition of MgCO3(s)→MgO(s)+CO2(g) Substitute the suitable values...To write the balanced equation for preparation of Al2Cl6 We can produce Al2Cl6 by reaction of...The reaction between iron ion and permanagate and its balanced equation is represented as follows....To identify A in the reaction of 2Mg(s) + O2(g)→ A 2 moles of magnesium reacts with 1 mole of oxygen...The given element Cs has a boiling point 669 Co , good ductile property, most electropositive...The balanced equation for the given starting materials is given below: CaH2(s) + 2H2O(l) →...Capture the given data Pressure is given as 0.90 atm Temperature is given as 25 oC Gas constant...Formation reaction of NO N2(g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g) Given that, Gibb’s free energy change of the...To give: The balanced equation for the reaction of phosphorus pentoxide with nitric acid. Reaction...To calculate: Gibb’s free energy change for the formation of NO2 Formation reaction of NO2 NO(g) +...Concentrated sulfuric acid-H2SO4 reacts with sodium iodide- NaI to produce molecular iodine-I2,...Preparation of NaOD from D2O 2Na(s)+2D2O(l)→2NaOD(aq)+D2(g) Metallic sodium reacts with deuterated...The given reaction is: C(s) + CO2(g) ⇌ 2CO (g) The following table gives the data of standard...To calculate: The pH of the given solution White phosphorus burn in air and produces phosphorus...The transition metals have various oxidation states (ranges from +3 to +7), whereas the main group...Predict the formula of tetrahydroxozincate(II). 1) The ligands ; 2)oxidation state of Zn is : +2​...Interpret the complex ion [Cr(CN)6]4-. In complex ion [Cr(CN)6]4- , the oxidation state of chromium...Predict the color of the complex [Co(NH3)6]3+. Given information: Wavelength of the incident light...Predict the complex which absorbs the longer wavelength. In the given complex ions, the ligand H2O...Find the concentration of lead ion [Pb(EDTA)2-]. [Pb]2++ EDTA4- ⇄ [Pb(EDTA)]2-Initial(M): 1.0×10-3...Find the concentration of free Ag+ ions at equilibrium. Ag+(aq)+ 2CN- (aq) ⇌ [Ag(CN)2]-(aq) The...Interpret the given information. The Cu3+ ion is unstable because of the high charge density on the...To find: Carbon forms more compound than the other element Catenation of the carbon atom. Carbon...Given structure: Predict the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms: The longest continuous carbon...To find: The structure of the given organic molecule. Name of the given organic compounds is...Net overall reaction is as follows, In order to obtain ethene as product reversing first equation...Calculate moles of each given elements: C: (37.5 g C)1 mol C12.01 g C = 3.12 mol C H: (3.2g H)1 mol...Calculate moles of each given elements: C: (9.708×10-3g CO2)1 mol CO244.01 g CO2× 1 mol C1 mol CO2...Given name: cyclopentane Predict the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms: The parent name is...The hydroxyl group act as nucleophile and the carboxylic group act as electrophile in presence of...Monomer: It is a molecule that can be bonded to other repeated subunits to form a polymer. Example...Given data: pKa of carboxyl group, COO− = 2.3pKa of ammonium group, NH3+ = 9.6 At pH = 1,...Given that pKa of −+NH3 and −COOH groups of valine are 9.62 and 2.32 respectively. Since −COOH has...Given information, Five molecules with molar masses 1.0, 3.0, 4.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kg/mol. Calculate the...

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