 # The endorphins released by the brain act as natural painkillers. For example, Gintzler (1980) monitored endorphin activity and pain thresholds in pregnant rats during the days before they gave birth. The data showed an increase in pain threshold as the pregnancy progressed. The change was gradual until 1 or 2 days before birth, at which point there was an abrupt increase in pain threshold. Apparently a natural painkilling mechanism was preparing the animals for the stress of giving birth. The following data represent pain-threshold scores similar to the results obtained by Gintzler. Do these data indicate a significant change in pain threshold? Use a repeated measures ANOVA with α =.01. Days Before Giving Birth Subject 7 5 3 1 A 39 40 49 52 B 38 39 44 55 C 44 46 50 60 D 40 42 46 56 E. 34 33 41 52 ### Essentials of Statistics for the B...

8th Edition
Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133956570 ### Essentials of Statistics for the B...

8th Edition
Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133956570

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 13, Problem 15P
Textbook Problem

## The endorphins released by the brain act as natural painkillers. For example, Gintzler (1980) monitored endorphin activity and pain thresholds in pregnant rats during the days before they gave birth. The data showed an increase in pain threshold as the pregnancy progressed. The change was gradual until 1 or 2 days before birth, at which point there was an abrupt increase in pain threshold. Apparently a natural painkilling mechanism was preparing the animals for the stress of giving birth. The following data represent pain-threshold scores similar to the results obtained by Gintzler. Do these data indicate a significant change in pain threshold? Use a repeated measures ANOVA with α =.01. Days Before Giving Birth Subject 7 5 3 1 A 39 40 49 52 B 38 39 44 55 C 44 46 50 60 D 40 42 46 56 E. 34 33 41 52

Expert Solution
To determine
If the data indicate a significant change in pain threshold using repeated measure ANOVA with α=0.01.

### Explanation of Solution

Given info:

 Days before giving birth Subject 7 5 3 1 Total A 39 40 45 52 P=180 B 38 39 44 55 P=176 C 44 46 50 60 P=200 D 40 42 46 56 P=184 E 34 33 41 52 P=160 T=195M=39SS=52 T=200M=40SS=90 T=230M=46SS=54 T=275M=55SS=44 n=5k=4N=20G=500∑X2=41550

Calculation:

Total:

SStotal=X2G2N=41550(500)220=1050

And,

dftotal=N1=201=19

Within treatment:

SSwithintreatment=SSinsideeachtreatment=52+90+54+44=240

And,

dfwithintreatment=dfinsideeachtreatment=4+4+4+4=16

Between treatments:

For this example, we find SSbetweentreatment by subtraction

SSbetweentreatment=SStotalSSwithintreatment=1050240=810

And,

dfbetweentreatment=K1=41=3

Substitute for P, G, k and N,

SSbetweensubjects=P2kG2N

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