The endorphins released by the brain act as natural painkillers. For example, Gintzler (1980) monitored endorphin activity and pain thresholds in pregnant rats during the days before they gave birth. The data showed an increase in pain threshold as the pregnancy progressed. The change was gradual until 1 or 2 days before birth, at which point there was an abrupt increase in pain threshold. Apparently a natural painkilling mechanism was preparing the animals for the stress of giving birth. The following data represent painthreshold scores similar to the results obtained by Gintzler. Do these data indicate a significant change in pain threshold? Use a repeated measures ANOVA with α =.01.
Days Before Giving Birth  
Subject  7  5  3  1 
A  39  40  49  52 
B  38  39  44  55 
C  44  46  50  60 
D  40  42  46  56 
E.  34  33  41  52 
Given info:
Days before giving birth  
Subject  7  5  3  1  Total 
A  39  40  45  52 

B  38  39  44  55 

C  44  46  50  60 

D  40  42  46  56 

E  34  33  41  52 






Calculation:
Total:
And,
Within treatment:
And,
Between treatments:
For this example, we find
And,
Substitute for P, G, k and N,
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