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Indicate whether each of the following aspects of the citrate–malate shuttle system associated with the process of lipogenesis occurs in the mitochondrial matrix or in the cytosol. a. Citrate enters the inner mitochondrial membrane. b. Malate is produced from oxaloacetate. c. NAD + is used to convert malate to oxaloacetate. d. CoA–SH is generated.

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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781305081079
Chapter 14, Problem 14.86EP
Textbook Problem
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Indicate whether each of the following aspects of the citrate–malate shuttle system associated with the process of lipogenesis occurs in the mitochondrial matrix or in the cytosol.

  1. a. Citrate enters the inner mitochondrial membrane.
  2. b. Malate is produced from oxaloacetate.
  3. c. NAD+ is used to convert malate to oxaloacetate.
  4. d. CoA–SH is generated.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Whether “citrate enters the inner mitochondrial membrane” occurs in the mitochondrial matrix or in the cytosol in the citrate-malate shuttle system has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Lipogenesis is the process employed for the synthesis of fatty acid. The starting precursor for the synthesis is acetyl CoA. The enzyme employed for the process is fatty acid synthase. It is a multienzyme complex that ties the reaction responsible for the synthesis of fatty acid.

Acetyl CoA is synthesized in mitochondria and then transported to cytosol through the citrate-malate shuttle system.

Explanation of Solution

Acetyl CoA is present in the mitochondrial matrix and lipogenesis occur in the cytosol. Therefore, acetyl CoA has to be transported in the cytosol for starting the process of lipogenesis.

The outer membrane of mitochondria is permeable for acetyl CoA unit but the inner membrane is very selective and is not permeable for acetyl CoA unit. Therefore, the citrate–malate shuttle system is employed for the transportation of acetyl CoA...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Whether “production of malate from oxaloacetate” occurs in the mitochondrial matrix or in the cytosol in the citrate–malate shuttle system has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Lipogenesis is the process employed for the synthesis of fatty acid. The starting precursor for the synthesis is acetyl CoA. The enzyme employed for the process is fatty acid synthase. It is a multienzyme complex that ties the reaction responsible for the synthesis of fatty acid.

Acetyl CoA is synthesized in mitochondria and then transported to cytosol through the citrate-malate shuttle system.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Whether “NAD+ is used to convert malate to oxaloacetate” occurs in the mitochondrial matrix or in the cytosol in the citrate–malate shuttle system has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Lipogenesis is the process employed for the synthesis of fatty acid. The starting precursor for the synthesis is acetyl CoA. The enzyme employed for the process is fatty acid synthase. It is a multienzyme complex that ties the reaction responsible for the synthesis of fatty acid.

Acetyl CoA is synthesized in mitochondria and then transported to cytosol through the citrate-malate shuttle system.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Whether “generation of CoA-SH” occur in the mitochondrial matrix or in the cytosol in the citrate–malate shuttle system has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Lipogenesis is the process employed for the synthesis of fatty acid. The starting precursor for the synthesis is acetyl CoA. The enzyme employed for the process is fatty acid synthase. It is a multienzyme complex that ties the reaction responsible for the synthesis of fatty acid.

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Chapter 14 Solutions

Organic And Biological Chemistry
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Ch. 14.3 - After the first stage of glycerol metabolism, the...Ch. 14.4 - In the oxidation of fatty acids, what two...Ch. 14.4 - In the oxidation of fatty acids, what molecule...Ch. 14.4 - The correct sequence for the four reactions of the...Ch. 14.4 - The correct sequence for the four reactions of the...Ch. 14.4 - How many turns of the -oxidation pathway are...Ch. 14.4 - How many turns of the -oxidation pathway are...Ch. 14.5 - How many acetyl CoA molecules are produced when a...Ch. 14.5 - How many FADH2 and NADH molecules are produced,...Ch. 14.5 - Net ATP production during a -oxidation process is...Ch. 14.6 - Which of the following is not a ketone body? a....Ch. 14.6 - How many of the ketone bodies are C4 molecules? a....Ch. 14.6 - How many acetyl CoA molecules are used as...Ch. 14.6 - The correct sequence for the four reactions of...Ch. 14.6 - The characterization C4 + C2C6 applies to which...Ch. 14.6 - How many units of acetyl CoA are produced when an...Ch. 14.7 - The process of lipogenesis occurs in the a....Ch. 14.7 - The notation ACP stands for a. acyl carnitine...Ch. 14.7 - Which of the following is the correct...Ch. 14.7 - Steps 2 through 4 of the chain elongation phase of...Ch. 14.7 - The reducing agent needed in the process of...Ch. 14.7 - The carrier of the two carbon units used to...Ch. 14.8 - Which of the following statements concerning the...Ch. 14.8 - The ketoacid intermediates in lipogenesis and the...Ch. 14.9 - Which of the following fates for fatty...Ch. 14.9 - Which of the following is a correct statement...Ch. 14.9 - How many molecules of acetyl CoA are consumed in...Ch. 14.9 - Acetyl CoA cannot be converted to which of the...Ch. 14.10 - Which of the following substances cannot be...Ch. 14.10 - Which of the following processes could not be used...Ch. 14.10 - Which of the following processes occurs within the...Ch. 14.11 - How many different B vitamins participate in the...Ch. 14.11 - Which of the following B-vitamin-containing...Ch. 14.11 - Which of the following B-vitamin-containing...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following pairings of...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 14 - What is a fatty acid micelle?Ch. 14 - What is a chylomicron?Ch. 14 - What are the products of the complete hydrolysis...Ch. 14 - What are the major products of the incomplete...Ch. 14 - At what location are free fatty acids and...Ch. 14 - At what location are free fatty acids and...Ch. 14 - What is the distinctive structural feature of...Ch. 14 - What is the major metabolic function of adipose...Ch. 14 - What is triacylglycerol mobilization?Ch. 14 - What situation signals the need for mobilization...Ch. 14 - What role does cAMP play in triacylglycerol...Ch. 14 - Triacylglycerols in adipose tissue do not enter...Ch. 14 - In which step of glycerol metabolism does each of...Ch. 14 - In which step of glycerol metabolism does each of...Ch. 14 - How does the structure of glycerol 3-phosphate...Ch. 14 - How does the structure of dihydroxyacetone...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 14 - Identify the oxidizing agent needed in Step 1 of a...Ch. 14 - Identify the oxidizing agent needed in Step 3 of a...Ch. 14 - What functional group change occurs in each of the...Ch. 14 - What type of reaction occurs in each of the...Ch. 14 - What is the configuration of the unsaturated enoyl...Ch. 14 - What is the configuration of the -hydroxyacyl CoA...Ch. 14 - Draw structural formulas for the following...Ch. 14 - Draw structural formulas for the following...Ch. 14 - What type of compoundacyl CoA, enoyl CoA,...Ch. 14 - What type of compoundacyl CoA, enoyl CoA,...Ch. 14 - In the context of fatty acid oxidation to acetyl...Ch. 14 - In the context of fatty acid oxidation to acetyl...Ch. 14 - In which step (of Steps 1 through 4) and in which...Ch. 14 - In which step (of Steps 1 through 4) and in which...Ch. 14 - Which compound(s) in Problem 25-39 undergo(es) a...Ch. 14 - Which compound(s) in Problem 25-40 undergo(es) a...Ch. 14 - How many turns of the -oxidation pathway would be...Ch. 14 - How many turns of the -oxidation pathway would be...Ch. 14 - The degradation of cis-3-hexenoic acid, a 6:1...Ch. 14 - The degradation of cis-4-hexenoic acid, a 6:1...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following substances...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following substances...Ch. 14 - Identify the major fuel for skeletal muscle in a....Ch. 14 - Explain why fatty acids cannot serve as fuel for...Ch. 14 - Consider the conversion of a C10 saturated acid...Ch. 14 - Consider the conversion of a C14 saturated acid...Ch. 14 - How many ATP molecules ultimately result from...Ch. 14 - How many ATP molecules ultimately result from...Ch. 14 - 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Before acetoacetate can be used as a fuel, it must...Ch. 14 - What are the names of the reactants and products...Ch. 14 - What is ketosis?Ch. 14 - Severe ketosis situations produce acidosis....Ch. 14 - In the context of lipid metabolism, indicate...Ch. 14 - In the context of lipid metabolism, indicate...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following is a...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following statements...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following aspects of...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following lipogenesis...Ch. 14 - Indicate whether each of the following lipogenesis...Ch. 14 - For the first cycle of the lipogenesis pathway,...Ch. 14 - For the first cycle of the lipogenesis pathway,...Ch. 14 - 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