Math

AlgebraElements Of Modern AlgebraA square matrix A = [ a i j ] n with a i j = 0 for all i > j is called upper triangular. Prove or disprove each of the following statements. The set of all upper triangular matrices is closed with respect to matrix addition in M n ( ℝ ) . The set of all upper triangular matrices is closed with respect to matrix multiplication in M n ( ℝ ) . If A and B are square and the product A B is upper triangular, then at least one of A or B is upper triangular.BuyFind*arrow_forward*

8th Edition

Gilbert + 2 others

Publisher: Cengage Learning,

ISBN: 9781285463230

Chapter 1.6, Problem 27E

Textbook Problem

A square matrix
**upper triangular.** Prove or disprove each of the following statements.

The set of all upper triangular matrices is closed with respect to matrix addition in

The set of all upper triangular matrices is closed with respect to matrix multiplication in

If

Elements Of Modern Algebra

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Ch. 1.1 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.1 - True or False Label each of the following...

Ch. 1.1 - For each set A, describe A by indicating a...Ch. 1.1 - 2. Decide whether or not each statement is true...Ch. 1.1 - Decide whether or not each statement is true. (a)...Ch. 1.1 - 4. Decide whether or not each of the following is...Ch. 1.1 - Evaluate each of the following sets, where U={...Ch. 1.1 - 6. Determine whether each of the following is...Ch. 1.1 - Write out the power set, (A), for each set A. a....Ch. 1.1 - 8. Describe two partitions of each of the...Ch. 1.1 - Write out all the different partitions of the...Ch. 1.1 - 10. Suppose the set has a .
a. How many elements...Ch. 1.1 - 11. State the most general conditions on the...Ch. 1.1 - 12. Let Z denote the set of all integers, and...Ch. 1.1 - 13. Let Z denote the set of all integers, and...Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises 1435, prove each statement. ABABCh. 1.1 - In Exercises 1435, prove each statement. (A)=ACh. 1.1 - In Exercises , prove each statement.
16. If and ,...Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises , prove each statement.
17. if and...Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises , prove each statement.
18.
Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises , prove each statement.
19.
Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises 1435, prove each statement. (AB)=ABCh. 1.1 - In Exercise 14-35, prove each statement.
21.
Ch. 1.1 - In Exercise 14-35, prove each statement. A(AB)=ABCh. 1.1 - In Exercises 14-35, prove each statement.
23.
Ch. 1.1 - In Exercise 14-35, prove each statement....Ch. 1.1 - In Exercise 14-35, prove each statement. If AB,...Ch. 1.1 - In Exercise 14-35, prove each statement.
26. If...Ch. 1.1 - In Exercise 14-35, prove each statement.
27.
Ch. 1.1 - In Exercise 14-35, prove each statement. A(BA)=Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises 14-35, prove each statement.
29.
Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises 14-35, prove each statement....Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises 1435, prove each statement....Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises 1435, prove each statement....Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises , prove each statement.
33.
Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises , prove each statement.
34. if and...Ch. 1.1 - In Exercises 1435, prove each statement. AB if and...Ch. 1.1 - Prove or disprove that AB=AC implies B=C.Ch. 1.1 - Prove or disprove that AB=AC implies B=C.Ch. 1.1 - 38. Prove or disprove that .
Ch. 1.1 - Prove or disprove that (AB)=(A)(B).Ch. 1.1 - 40. Prove or disprove that .
Ch. 1.1 - Express (AB)(AB) in terms of unions and...Ch. 1.1 - 42. Let the operation of addition be defined on...Ch. 1.1 - 43. Let the operation of addition be as defined in...Ch. 1.2 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.2 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.2 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.2 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.2 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.2 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.2 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.2 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.2 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.2 - 1. For the given sets, form the Cartesian...Ch. 1.2 - For each of the following mapping, state the...Ch. 1.2 - 3. For each of the following mappings, write out ...Ch. 1.2 - For each of the following mappings f:ZZ, determine...Ch. 1.2 - 5. For each of the following mappings, determine...Ch. 1.2 - 6. For the given subsets and of Z, let and...Ch. 1.2 - 7. For the given subsets and of Z, let and...Ch. 1.2 - 8. For the given subsets and of Z, let and...Ch. 1.2 - For the given subsets A and B of Z, let f(x)=2x...Ch. 1.2 - For each of the following parts, give an example...Ch. 1.2 - For the given f:ZZ, decide whether f is onto and...Ch. 1.2 - 12. Let and . For the given , decide whether is...Ch. 1.2 - 13. For the given decide whether is onto and...Ch. 1.2 - 14. Let be given by
a. Prove or disprove that ...Ch. 1.2 - 15. a. Show that the mapping given in Example 2...Ch. 1.2 - 16. Let be given by
a. For , find and .
b. ...Ch. 1.2 - 17. Let be given by
a. For find and.
b. For...Ch. 1.2 - 18. Let and be defined as follows. In each case,...Ch. 1.2 - Let f and g be defined in the various parts of...Ch. 1.2 - In Exercises 20-22, Suppose and are positive...Ch. 1.2 - In Exercises 20-22, Suppose and are positive...Ch. 1.2 - In Exercises 20-22, Suppose and are positive...Ch. 1.2 - Let a and b be constant integers with a0, and let...Ch. 1.2 - 24. Let, where and are nonempty.
Prove that for...Ch. 1.2 - 25. Let, where and are non empty, and let and ...Ch. 1.2 - 26. Let and. Prove that for any subset of T of...Ch. 1.2 - 27. Let , where and are nonempty. Prove that ...Ch. 1.2 - 28. Let where and are nonempty. Prove that ...Ch. 1.3 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.3 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.3 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.3 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.3 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.3 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.3 - For each of the following pairs and decide...Ch. 1.3 - For each pair given in Exercise 1, decide whether ...Ch. 1.3 - Let . Find mappings and such that.
Ch. 1.3 - Give an example of mappings and such that one of...Ch. 1.3 - Give an example of mapping and different from...Ch. 1.3 - 6. a. Give an example of mappings and , different...Ch. 1.3 - 7. a. Give an example of mappings and , where is...Ch. 1.3 - Suppose f,g and h are all mappings of a set A into...Ch. 1.3 - Find mappings f,g and h of a set A into itself...Ch. 1.3 - Let g:AB and f:BC. Prove that f is onto if fg is...Ch. 1.3 - 11. Let and . Prove that is one-to-one if is...Ch. 1.3 - Let f:AB and g:BA. Prove that f is one-to-one and...Ch. 1.4 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.4 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.4 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.4 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.4 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.4 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.4 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.4 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.4 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.4 - 1. Decide whether the given set is closed with...Ch. 1.4 - In each part following, a rule that determines a...Ch. 1.4 - 3. Let be a set of three elements given by . In...Ch. 1.4 - 4. Let be a set of three elements given by . In...Ch. 1.4 - 5. Let be the set of four elements given by with...Ch. 1.4 - Let S be the set of four elements given by S={...Ch. 1.4 - 7. Prove or disprove that the set of nonzero...Ch. 1.4 - 8. Prove or disprove that the set of all odd...Ch. 1.4 - 9. The definition of an even integer was stated in...Ch. 1.4 - 10. Prove or disprove that the set of all nonzero...Ch. 1.4 - Prove or disprove that the set B={ z3|zZ } is...Ch. 1.4 - 12. Prove or disprove that the set of non zero...Ch. 1.4 - Assume that is an associative binary operation on...Ch. 1.4 - Assume that is a binary operation on a non empty...Ch. 1.4 - 15. Let be a binary operation on the non empty...Ch. 1.4 - Assume that is an associative binary operation on...Ch. 1.5 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.5 - True or False Label each of the following...Ch. 1.5 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.5 - For each of the following mappings exhibit a...Ch. 1.5 - 2. For each of the mappings given in Exercise 1,...Ch. 1.5 - 3. If is a positive integer and the set has ...Ch. 1.5 - 4. Let , where is nonempty. Prove that a has...Ch. 1.5 - Let f:AA, where A is nonempty. Prove that f a has...Ch. 1.5 - 6. Prove that if is a permutation on , then is a...Ch. 1.5 - Prove that if f is a permutation on A, then...Ch. 1.5 - 8. a. Prove that the set of all onto mappings from...Ch. 1.5 - Let f and g be permutations on A. Prove that...Ch. 1.5 - 10. Let and be mappings from to. Prove that if is...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.6 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.6 - Write out the matrix that matches the given...Ch. 1.6 - 2. Perform the indicated operations, if...Ch. 1.6 - 3. Perform the following multiplications, if...Ch. 1.6 - Let A=[aij]23 where aij=i+j, and let B=[bij]34...Ch. 1.6 - 5. Show that the matrix equation is equivalent to...Ch. 1.6 - 6. Write a single matrix equation of the form ...Ch. 1.6 - Let ij denote the Kronecker delta: ij=1 if i=j,...Ch. 1.6 - Let S be the set of four matrices S={I,A,B,C},...Ch. 1.6 - 9. Find two square matrices and such that.
Ch. 1.6 - Find two nonzero matrices A and B such that AB=BA.Ch. 1.6 - 11. Find two nonzero matrices and such that.
Ch. 1.6 - 12. Positive integral powers of a square matrix...Ch. 1.6 - For the matrices in Exercise 12, evaluate (A+B)2...Ch. 1.6 - Assume that A1 exists and find a solution X to...Ch. 1.6 - 15. Assume that are in and with and invertible....Ch. 1.6 - a. Prove part d of Theorem 1.30. b. Prove part e...Ch. 1.6 - a. Prove part a. of Theorem 1.34. b. Prove part b....Ch. 1.6 - Prove part b of Theorem 1.35.
Theorem 1.35 ...Ch. 1.6 - Let a and b be real numbers and A and B elements...Ch. 1.6 - Prove that if then.
Ch. 1.6 - Suppose that A is an invertible matrix over and O...Ch. 1.6 - Let be the set of all elements of that have one...Ch. 1.6 - Prove that the set S={[abba]|a,b} is closed with...Ch. 1.6 - Prove or disprove that the set of diagonal...Ch. 1.6 - Let A and B be square matrices of order n over...Ch. 1.6 - Let and be square matrices of order over ....Ch. 1.6 - A square matrix A=[aij]n with aij=0 for all ij is...Ch. 1.6 - Let a,b,c,andd be real numbers. If adbc0, show...Ch. 1.6 - Let A=[abcd] over . Prove that if adbc=0, then A...Ch. 1.6 - Let be elements of where is not a zero matrix....Ch. 1.6 - Let A,BandC be square matrices of order n over ....Ch. 1.6 - Let A and B be nn matrices over such that A1 and...Ch. 1.7 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.7 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.7 -
True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.7 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.7 - True or False
Label each of the following...Ch. 1.7 - Label each of the following statements as either...Ch. 1.7 - For determine which of the following relations...Ch. 1.7 - 2. In each of the following parts, a relation is...Ch. 1.7 - a. Let R be the equivalence relation defined on Z...Ch. 1.7 - 4. Let be the relation “congruence modulo 5”...Ch. 1.7 - 5. Let be the relation “congruence modulo ”...Ch. 1.7 - In Exercises 610, a relation R is defined on the...Ch. 1.7 - In Exercises 610, a relation R is defined on the...Ch. 1.7 - In Exercises 610, a relation R is defined on the...Ch. 1.7 - In Exercises 610, a relation R is defined on the...Ch. 1.7 - In Exercises , a relation is defined on the set ...Ch. 1.7 - Let be a relation defined on the set of all...Ch. 1.7 - Let and be lines in a plane. Decide in each case...Ch. 1.7 - 13. Consider the set of all nonempty subsets of ....Ch. 1.7 - In each of the following parts, a relation is...Ch. 1.7 - Let A=R0, the set of all nonzero real numbers, and...Ch. 1.7 - 16. Let and define on by if and only if ....Ch. 1.7 - In each of the following parts, a relation R is...Ch. 1.7 - Let (A) be the power set of the nonempty set A,...Ch. 1.7 - For each of the following relations R defined on...Ch. 1.7 - Give an example of a relation R on a nonempty set...Ch. 1.7 - 21. A relation on a nonempty set is called...Ch. 1.7 - A relation R on a nonempty set A is called...Ch. 1.7 - A relation R on a nonempty set A is called...Ch. 1.7 - For any relation on the nonempty set, the inverse...Ch. 1.7 - 25. Let , , and . Write out and .
Ch. 1.7 - 26. Let , , and . Write out and .
Ch. 1.7 - Prove Theorem 1.40: If is an equivalence relation...Ch. 1.7 - 28. Let , and . Define the relation R on A by if...Ch. 1.7 - 29. Suppose , , represents a partition of the...Ch. 1.7 - Suppose thatis an onto mapping from to. Prove that...

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