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The formation of diamond from graphite is a process of considerable importance. (a) Using data in Appendix L, calculate Δ r S °, Δ r H °, and Δ r G ° for this process at 25 °C. (b) The calculations will suggest that this process is not possible at any temperature. However, the synthesis of diamonds by this reaction is a commercial process. How can this contradiction be rationalized? ( Note: In the industrial synthesis, high pressure and high temperatures are used.)

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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 18, Problem 80SCQ
Textbook Problem
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The formation of diamond from graphite is a process of considerable importance.

  1. (a) Using data in Appendix L, calculate ΔrS°, ΔrH°, and ΔrG° for this process at 25 °C.
  2. (b) The calculations will suggest that this process is not possible at any temperature. However, the synthesis of diamonds by this reaction is a commercial process. How can this contradiction be rationalized? (Note: In the industrial synthesis, high pressure and high temperatures are used.)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The value of ΔrH°, ΔrS° and ΔrGo for the formation of diamond at given temperature at given temperature.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔrGo. It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,

    ΔrGorHo-TΔrSo

Here, ΔrH° is the change in enthalpy and ΔrS° is the change in entropy.

Explanation of Solution

The value of ΔrH°, ΔrS° and ΔrGo for formation of diamond is calculated below.

Given:

Refer to Appendix L for the values of standard entropies and enthalpies.

The standard entropy value for C(graphite) is 5.6 J/Kmol.

The standard entropy value for C(diamond) is 2.377 J/Kmol

The standard enthalpy value for C(graphite) is 0 kJ/mol.

The standard enthalpy value for C(diamond) is 1.8 kJ/mol.

The given reaction is,

  C(graphite)C(diamond)

ΔrH°=fH°(products)fH°(reactants)[(1 mol C(diamond)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[C(diamond)]-(1 mol C(graphite)/mol-rxn)ΔfH°[C(graphite)]]

Substitute the values,

ΔrH°[(1 mol C(diamond)/mol-rxn)(1.8 kJ/mol)-(1 mol C(graphite)/mol-rxn)(0 kJ/mol)]= 1

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The contradiction in production of diamond from graphite with the calculations should be rationalized.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔrGo. It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,

    ΔrGorHo-TΔrSo

Here, ΔrH° is the change in enthalpy and ΔrS° is the change in entropy.

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 18.4 - Without looking up their standard entropies in...Ch. 18.4 - Without doing any calculations, predict the sign...Ch. 18.4 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C....Ch. 18.5 - Based on rH and rS, predict the spontaneity of the...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate rS for the following reaction at 25 C...Ch. 18.5 - Calculate S(universe) for the following reaction...Ch. 18.5 - 3. If rH° = +467.9 kJ/mol-rxn and rS° = +560.7 J/K...Ch. 18.6 - For a reaction to be spontaneous, rG will be...Ch. 18.6 - A reaction for which rG 0 is (a) product-favored...Ch. 18.7 - Using values of fH and S to find rH and rS,...Ch. 18.7 - Calculate the standard free energy change for the...Ch. 18.7 - Oxygen was first prepared by Joseph Priestley...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of rG for the reaction C(s) +...Ch. 18.7 - Determine the value of the equilibrium constant,...Ch. 18.7 - Nitrogen and oxygen can react to form nitrogen...Ch. 18.7 - 1. Given that H° = −2219 kJ/mol-rxn and that rS° =...Ch. 18.7 - 2. Using values of rG°, determine the value of rG°...Ch. 18.7 - 3. The value of Kp for the following reaction at...Ch. 18.7 - Consider the hydrolysis reactions of creatine...Ch. 18.7 - Assume the reaction A(aq) + B(aq) C(aq) +...Ch. 18.A - The decomposition of diamond to graphite...Ch. 18.A - It has been demonstrated that buckminsterfullerene...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) dry...Ch. 18 - Which substance has the higher entropy? (a) a...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Use S values to calculate the standard entropy...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate the standard entropy change for the...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 Cl2(g) SiCl4(g)...Ch. 18 - Is the reaction Si(s) + 2 H2(g) SiH4(g)...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the decomposition of 1...Ch. 18 - Calculate S(universe) for the formation of 1 mol...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Classify each of the reactions according to one of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate rG for each of...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fH and S, calculate the standard...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - Using values of fG, calculate rG for each of the...Ch. 18 - For the reaction BaCO3(s) BaO(s) + CO2(g), rG =...Ch. 18 - For the reaction TiCl2(s) + Cl2(g) TiCl4(), rG =...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Determine whether the reactions listed below are...Ch. 18 - Heating some metal carbonates, among them...Ch. 18 - Calculate rH and rS for the reaction of tin(IV)...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - The standard free energy change, rG, for the...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - Calculate rG at 25 C for the formation of 1.00 mol...Ch. 18 - For the synthesis of ammonia from its elements at...Ch. 18 - For the decomposition of solid calcium carbonate...Ch. 18 - Compare the compounds in each set below and decide...Ch. 18 - Using standard entropy values, calculate rS for...Ch. 18 - About 5 billion kilograms of benzene, C6H6, are...Ch. 18 - Hydrogenation, the addition of hydrogen to an...Ch. 18 - 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