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The pH of human stomach acid ranges from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas a healthy esophagus has a pH of approximately 7.0. In gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), often called acid reflux, stomach acid flows backward from the stomach into the esophagus. Repeated episodes in which esophageal pH goes below 4.0, considered clinical acid reflux, can result in bleeding ulcers and damage to the esophageal lining. The data in the Figure, from a patient with GERD, show esophageal pH during a sleeping reflux event. What is the change in concentration of H + and OH - during the peak of the reflux attack compared to the clinical value of acid reflux? Be sure to include the correct concentration units in your answer. Source: Based on T. Demeester et al. 1976. Patterns of gastroesophageal reflux in health and disease. Annals of Surgery 184:459–469.

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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305389892
BuyFind

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305389892

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Chapter
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Chapter 2, Problem 3ITD
Textbook Problem
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The pH of human stomach acid ranges from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas a healthy esophagus has a pH of approximately 7.0. In gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), often called acid reflux, stomach acid flows backward from the stomach into the esophagus. Repeated episodes in which esophageal pH goes below 4.0, considered clinical acid reflux, can result in bleeding ulcers and damage to the esophageal lining. The data in the Figure, from a patient with GERD, show esophageal pH during a sleeping reflux event.

Chapter 2, Problem 3ITD, The pH of human stomach acid ranges from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas a healthy esophagus has a pH of

What is the change in concentration of H+ and OH- during the peak of the reflux attack compared to the clinical value of acid reflux? Be sure to include the correct concentration units in your answer.

Source: Based on T. Demeester et al. 1976. Patterns of gastroesophageal reflux in health and disease. Annals of Surgery 184:459–469.

Expert Solution
Summary Introduction

To review:

The change in H+ and OH concentrations at peak of the reflux attack in comparison to the clinical value of acid reflux.

Introduction:

The gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which the pH in esophagus changes from neutral to acidic. This can be monitored in patients by tracing pH changes during sleep to detect the sleep reflux event.

Explanation of Solution

The reflux is a condition when hydrochloric acid in stomach reaches esophagus and decreases its pH from 7.0 (normal condition) to acidic (below 7.0). When the pH is minimum during testing, that is considered as peak reflux and is considered over when it reaches 4.0 and above.

At peak of reflux, pH was 2.

At pH =2, Concentration of [H+] = 1×102So, concentration of [OH] = 1×1014[1×102]=1×1012

Clinical value of reflux, pH is 4

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