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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 7.4, Problem 3RC
Textbook Problem
159 views

Which of the following species is most paramagnetic?

  1. (a) Cr
  2. (b) Cr3+
  3. (c) Mn
  4. (d) Mn2+

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The four different periodic element and ions are given in the statement and which one is have most paramagnetic nature compare form other. These terms should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Paramagnetic: The Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of some unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field.

Diamagnetic properties: In diamagnetic materials all the electron are paired so there is no permanent net magnetic moment per atom.

Explanation of Solution

Reasons for correct answers:

Let us consider a chromium (Cr) electronic configuration

The Chromium (Cr) has six electrons in outermost orbital the five (3d) orbital and (one) electrons in (4s) orbitals, the electrons filling method presented below.

AtomicnumberofChromium (Cr)=24spdfwith orbtital notation=Cr[1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1Orbital filling method       1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1

Therefore, the correct option is option (a).

Reasons for incorrect options:

When ( Cr ) was oxidized to ( Cr3+ ) ions, it lost three electrons in outermost ( 3d and 4s) orbitals, hence this orbital notation method shows below.

Orbital filling method  (Cr+) ions = 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s0

So these (Cr3+) ions have four unpaired electrons in (3d) shells.

Electronic configuration of Mn and Mn2+ ions

The electronic configuration of Manganese (Mn) element

The first (18) electrons are occupying in (1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p) orbitals and reaming 7 electros filling in (3d and 4s) orbital shells

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Chapter 7 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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(a) Which...Ch. 7 - Compare the elements B. Al, C, and Si. (a) Which...Ch. 7 - Explain each answer briefly. (a) Place the...Ch. 7 - Explain each answer briefly. 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