BuyFindarrow_forward

Essentials of Statistics for the B...

8th Edition
Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other
ISBN: 9781133956570

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Essentials of Statistics for the B...

8th Edition
Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other
ISBN: 9781133956570
Textbook Problem

Earlier in this chapter, we discussed a study investigating the relationship between memory for eyewitnesses and the questions they are asked (Loftus & Palmer, 1974). In the study, participants watched a film of an automobile accident and then were questioned about the accident. One group was asked how fast the cars were going when they “smashed into” each other. A second group was asked about the speed when the cars “hit” each other, and a third group was not asked any question about the speed of the cars. A week later, the participants returned to answer additional questions about the accident, including whether they recalled seeing any broken glass. Although there was no broken glass in the film, several students claimed to remember seeing it. The following table shows the frequency distribution of responses for each group.

  Response to the Question: Did You See Any Broken Glass?
    Yes No
Verb Used to Ask About the Speed of the Cars Smashed into 16 34
Hit 7 43
  Control (Not Asked) 6 44
  • a. Does the proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass differ significantly from group to group? Test with α = .05.
  • b. Compute Cramérs V to measure the size of the treatment effect.
  • c. Describe how the phrasing of the question influenced the participants' memories.
  • d. Write a sentence demonstrating how the outcome of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size would be reported in a journal article.

a.

To determine

To Find: If the proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass differ significantly from group to group for the given question.

Explanation

Given info:

A sample of 150 students were involved in a study based on “the response they gave regarding the broken glass or verb used for speed”. The distribution is given in the question. Use α=0.05 to test the claim.

 YesNoTotal
Smashed into163450
Hit74350
Control (not asked)64450
Total29121150

Calculation:

Step 1: Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis are:

H0: Proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass does not differ significantly from group to group.

H1: Proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass differ significantly from group to group

Step 2: For the given sample, degrees of freedom equals:

df=(R1)(C1)   where R equals number of rows and C equals columns=(31)(21)=2

With α=0.05 and df=2, the critical value (CV)  is obtained from the χ2table as

χ2=5.991

Step 3: χ2statistic is calculated as:

χ2=(fofe)2fe

The formula to calculate expected frequency is:

fe=fcfrn...where fr is row frequency and fc is column frequency

Substitute n=600 in the above formula and compute respective values of expected frequencies:

For the category “smashed into”, the expected frequencies are:

fe,yes=29×50150fe,no=121×50150

For the category “Hit”, the expected frequencies are:

fe,yes=29

b.

To determine

To Find: The value of Cramer’s V for the given question.

c.

To determine

To Describe: How does the phrasing of the question influenced the participants memories.

d.

To determine

How would the outcome of hypothesis and Cramer’s V will be written in the report.

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Additional Math Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts

Show solutions add

Show by means of an example that limxa[f(x)/g(x)] may exist even though neither limxaf(x) nor limxag(x) exists....

Applied Calculus for the Managerial, Life, and Social Sciences: A Brief Approach

Evaluate the integral. e2sin3d

Calculus (MindTap Course List)

Evaluate the integrals in Problems 1-11. 4.

Mathematical Applications for the Management, Life, and Social Sciences

True or False: converges mean exists.

Study Guide for Stewart's Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 8th