Chapter 15, Problem 15P

BuyFind*arrow_forward*

8th Edition

Frederick J Gravetter + 1 other

ISBN: 9781133956570

Textbook Problem

Earlier in this chapter, we discussed a study investigating the relationship between memory for eyewitnesses and the questions they are asked (Loftus & Palmer, 1974). In the study, participants watched a film of an automobile accident and then were questioned about the accident. One group was asked how fast the cars were going when they “smashed into” each other. A second group was asked about the speed when the cars “hit” each other, and a third group was not asked any question about the speed of the cars. A week later, the participants returned to answer additional questions about the accident, including whether they recalled seeing any broken glass. Although there was no broken glass in the film, several students claimed to remember seeing it. The following table shows the frequency distribution of responses for each group.

Response to the Question: Did You See Any Broken Glass? | |||

Yes |
No |
||

Verb Used to Ask About the Speed of the Cars | Smashed into | 16 | 34 |

Hit | 7 | 43 | |

Control (Not Asked) | 6 | 44 |

**a.**Does the proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass differ significantly from group to group? Test with*α*= .05.**b.**Compute Cramérs*V*to measure the size of the treatment effect.**c.**Describe how the phrasing of the question influenced the participants' memories.**d.**Write a sentence demonstrating how the outcome of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size would be reported in a journal article.

**a.**

To determine

**To Find:** If the proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass differ significantly from group to group for the given question.

Explanation

**Given info:**

A sample of 150 students were involved in a study based on “the response they gave regarding the broken glass or verb used for speed”. The distribution is given in the question. Use

Yes | No | Total | |

Smashed into | 16 | 34 | 50 |

Hit | 7 | 43 | 50 |

Control (not asked) | 6 | 44 | 50 |

Total | 29 | 121 | 150 |

**Calculation:**

Step 1: Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis are:

Step 2: For the given sample, degrees of freedom equals:

With

Step 3:

The formula to calculate expected frequency is:

Substitute

For the category “smashed into”, the expected frequencies are:

For the category “Hit”, the expected frequencies are:

**b.**

To determine

**To Find:** The value of Cramer’s V for the given question.

**c.**

To determine

**To Describe:** How does the phrasing of the question influenced the participants memories.

**d.**

To determine

How would the outcome of hypothesis and Cramer’s V will be written in the report.

Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)

Understanding Basic Statistics

Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences

Essentials Of Statistics

Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)

Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions (MindTap Course List)

Mathematical Excursions (MindTap Course List)

Calculus (MindTap Course List)

Calculus: Early Transcendentals

Elementary Geometry For College Students, 7e

Finite Mathematics

Intermediate Algebra

Finite Mathematics and Applied Calculus (MindTap Course List)

Applied Calculus for the Managerial, Life, and Social Sciences: A Brief Approach

Calculus (MindTap Course List)

Applied Calculus

Multivariable Calculus

Elements Of Modern Algebra

Precalculus: Mathematics for Calculus (Standalone Book)

Calculus of a Single Variable

Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals, Volume I

Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals

Finite Mathematics for the Managerial, Life, and Social Sciences

Mathematical Applications for the Management, Life, and Social Sciences

Contemporary Mathematics for Business & Consumers

Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions

Elementary Technical Mathematics

Trigonometry (MindTap Course List)

Calculus: An Applied Approach (MindTap Course List)

Single Variable Calculus

Introduction To Statistics And Data Analysis

Study Guide for Stewart's Multivariable Calculus, 8th

Elementary Geometry for College Students

Study Guide for Stewart's Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 8th