Earlier in this chapter, we discussed a study investigating the relationship between memory for eyewitnesses and the questions they are asked (Loftus & Palmer, 1974). In the study, participants watched a film of an automobile accident and then were questioned about the accident. One group was asked how fast the cars were going when they “smashed into” each other. A second group was asked about the speed when the cars “hit” each other, and a third group was not asked any question about the speed of the cars. A week later, the participants returned to answer additional questions about the accident, including whether they recalled seeing any broken glass. Although there was no broken glass in the film, several students claimed to remember seeing it. The following table shows the frequency distribution of responses for each group.
|Response to the Question: Did You See Any Broken Glass?|
|Verb Used to Ask About the Speed of the Cars||Smashed into||16||34|
|Control (Not Asked)||6||44|
To Find: If the proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass differ significantly from group to group for the given question.
A sample of 150 students were involved in a study based on “the response they gave regarding the broken glass or verb used for speed”. The distribution is given in the question. Use to test the claim.
|Control (not asked)||6||44||50|
Step 1: Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypothesis are:
Proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass does not differ significantly from group to group.
Proportion of participants who claim to remember broken glass differ significantly from group to group
Step 2: For the given sample, degrees of freedom equals:
With and , the critical value (CV) is obtained from the as
Step 3: is calculated as:
The formula to calculate expected frequency is:
Substitute in the above formula and compute respective values of expected frequencies:
For the category “smashed into”, the expected frequencies are:
For the category “Hit”, the expected frequencies are:
To Find: The value of Cramer’s V for the given question.
To Describe: How does the phrasing of the question influenced the participants memories.
How would the outcome of hypothesis and Cramer’s V will be written in the report.
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