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Calculus: Early Transcendentals

8th Edition
James Stewart
ISBN: 9781285741550

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Calculus: Early Transcendentals

8th Edition
James Stewart
ISBN: 9781285741550
Textbook Problem

(a) Define the line integral of a vector field F along a smooth curve C given by a vector function r(t).

(b) If F is a force field, what does this line integral represent?

(c) If F = ⟨PQ, R⟩, what is the connection between the line integral of F and the line integrals of the component functions P, Q, and R?

(a)

To determine

To define: The line integral of vector field F along smooth curve C.

Explanation

The integrals which are done over a curve instead of a interval are referred as line integrals.

Consider a smooth curve C, atb given by vector function r(t)=x(t)i+y(t)j+z(t)k with parametric equations,

x=x(t)y=y(t)z=z(t)

The first derivative of vector function r(t)=x(t)i+y(t)j+z(t)k (r(t)) is continuous, and not equal to zero, r(t)0 as curve C is a smooth curve. Divide the parametric interval of curve C which is [a,b] , into the equal width of n subintervals as [ti1,ti] and subarcs of curve C as Δs1,Δs2,...,Δsn .

Hence, the parametric equations at simple point Pi(xi,yi,zi) for ith subarc are,

xi=x(ti)yi=y(ti)z=z(ti)

Consider a vector field F which includes the domain of curve C. Then the line integral of function is equal to the sum of product of value of f at point (xi,yi,zi) and subarc length Δsi .

The line integral of vector field F over smooth curve C is,

CFdr=limni=1nf(xi,yi,zi)Δsi (1)

Consider the length of subarc Δsi as L.

Re-modify the equation (1).

CFdr=f(x(t),y(t),z(t))L (2)

Write the expression for length of C on 3 (L) .

L=ab(dxdt)2+(dydt)2++(dzdt)2dt

Substitute ab(dxdt)2+(dydt)2+(dzdt)2dt for L in equation (2),

CFdr=F(x(t),y(t),z(t))(ab(dxdt)2+(dydt)2+(dzdt)2dt)

CFdr=abF(r(t))(dxdt)2+(dydt)2+(dzdt)2dt{F(r(t))=F(x(t),y(t),z(t))} (3)

Write the expression for CFdr .

F(r(t))=F(r(t))T(t) (4)

Here,

T(t) is a unit tangent vector at point (x,y,z) .

Write the expression for unit tangent vector T(t) .

T(t)=r(t)|r(t)|

Here,

|r(t)| is magnitude of first derivative of vector function r(t)

(b)

To determine

To explain: If the vector field F is force, then what does the line integral represent.

(c)

To determine

To explain: The relation between the line integral of F and line integrals of component functions P, Q, and R.

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Chapter 16 Solutions

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Sect-16.1 P-11ESect-16.1 P-12ESect-16.1 P-13ESect-16.1 P-14ESect-16.1 P-15ESect-16.1 P-16ESect-16.1 P-17ESect-16.1 P-18ESect-16.1 P-21ESect-16.1 P-22ESect-16.1 P-23ESect-16.1 P-24ESect-16.1 P-25ESect-16.1 P-26ESect-16.1 P-29ESect-16.1 P-30ESect-16.1 P-31ESect-16.1 P-32ESect-16.1 P-33ESect-16.1 P-34ESect-16.1 P-35ESect-16.1 P-36ESect-16.2 P-1ESect-16.2 P-2ESect-16.2 P-3ESect-16.2 P-4ESect-16.2 P-5ESect-16.2 P-6ESect-16.2 P-7ESect-16.2 P-8ESect-16.2 P-9ESect-16.2 P-10ESect-16.2 P-11ESect-16.2 P-12ESect-16.2 P-13ESect-16.2 P-14ESect-16.2 P-15ESect-16.2 P-16ESect-16.2 P-17ESect-16.2 P-18ESect-16.2 P-19ESect-16.2 P-20ESect-16.2 P-21ESect-16.2 P-22ESect-16.2 P-23ESect-16.2 P-24ESect-16.2 P-25ESect-16.2 P-26ESect-16.2 P-31ESect-16.2 P-32ESect-16.2 P-33ESect-16.2 P-34ESect-16.2 P-35ESect-16.2 P-36ESect-16.2 P-37ESect-16.2 P-38ESect-16.2 P-39ESect-16.2 P-40ESect-16.2 P-41ESect-16.2 P-42ESect-16.2 P-43ESect-16.2 P-44ESect-16.2 P-45ESect-16.2 P-46ESect-16.2 P-47ESect-16.2 P-48ESect-16.2 P-49ESect-16.2 P-50ESect-16.2 P-51ESect-16.2 P-52ESect-16.3 P-1ESect-16.3 P-2ESect-16.3 P-3ESect-16.3 P-4ESect-16.3 P-5ESect-16.3 P-6ESect-16.3 P-7ESect-16.3 P-8ESect-16.3 P-9ESect-16.3 P-10ESect-16.3 P-11ESect-16.3 P-12ESect-16.3 P-13ESect-16.3 P-14ESect-16.3 P-15ESect-16.3 P-16ESect-16.3 P-17ESect-16.3 P-18ESect-16.3 P-19ESect-16.3 P-20ESect-16.3 P-21ESect-16.3 P-22ESect-16.3 P-23ESect-16.3 P-24ESect-16.3 P-25ESect-16.3 P-26ESect-16.3 P-28ESect-16.3 P-29ESect-16.3 P-30ESect-16.3 P-31ESect-16.3 P-32ESect-16.3 P-33ESect-16.3 P-34ESect-16.3 P-35ESect-16.4 P-1ESect-16.4 P-2ESect-16.4 P-3ESect-16.4 P-4ESect-16.4 P-5ESect-16.4 P-6ESect-16.4 P-7ESect-16.4 P-8ESect-16.4 P-9ESect-16.4 P-10ESect-16.4 P-11ESect-16.4 P-12ESect-16.4 P-13ESect-16.4 P-14ESect-16.4 P-17ESect-16.4 P-18ESect-16.4 P-19ESect-16.4 P-20ESect-16.4 P-21ESect-16.4 P-22ESect-16.4 P-23ESect-16.4 P-24ESect-16.4 P-25ESect-16.4 P-26ESect-16.4 P-27ESect-16.4 P-28ESect-16.4 P-29ESect-16.4 P-30ESect-16.4 P-31ESect-16.5 P-1ESect-16.5 P-2ESect-16.5 P-3ESect-16.5 P-4ESect-16.5 P-5ESect-16.5 P-6ESect-16.5 P-7ESect-16.5 P-8ESect-16.5 P-9ESect-16.5 P-10ESect-16.5 P-11ESect-16.5 P-12ESect-16.5 P-13ESect-16.5 P-14ESect-16.5 P-15ESect-16.5 P-16ESect-16.5 P-17ESect-16.5 P-18ESect-16.5 P-19ESect-16.5 P-20ESect-16.5 P-21ESect-16.5 P-22ESect-16.5 P-23ESect-16.5 P-24ESect-16.5 P-25ESect-16.5 P-26ESect-16.5 P-27ESect-16.5 P-28ESect-16.5 P-29ESect-16.5 P-30ESect-16.5 P-31ESect-16.5 P-32ESect-16.5 P-33ESect-16.5 P-34ESect-16.5 P-35ESect-16.5 P-36ESect-16.5 P-37ESect-16.5 P-38ESect-16.5 P-39ESect-16.6 P-1ESect-16.6 P-2ESect-16.6 P-3ESect-16.6 P-4ESect-16.6 P-5ESect-16.6 P-6ESect-16.6 P-13ESect-16.6 P-14ESect-16.6 P-15ESect-16.6 P-16ESect-16.6 P-17ESect-16.6 P-18ESect-16.6 P-19ESect-16.6 P-20ESect-16.6 P-21ESect-16.6 P-22ESect-16.6 P-23ESect-16.6 P-24ESect-16.6 P-25ESect-16.6 P-26ESect-16.6 P-29ESect-16.6 P-30ESect-16.6 P-33ESect-16.6 P-34ESect-16.6 P-35ESect-16.6 P-36ESect-16.6 P-37ESect-16.6 P-38ESect-16.6 P-39ESect-16.6 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P-7ESect-16.8 P-8ESect-16.8 P-9ESect-16.8 P-10ESect-16.8 P-11ESect-16.8 P-12ESect-16.8 P-13ESect-16.8 P-14ESect-16.8 P-15ESect-16.8 P-17ESect-16.8 P-18ESect-16.8 P-19ESect-16.8 P-20ESect-16.9 P-1ESect-16.9 P-2ESect-16.9 P-3ESect-16.9 P-4ESect-16.9 P-5ESect-16.9 P-6ESect-16.9 P-7ESect-16.9 P-8ESect-16.9 P-9ESect-16.9 P-10ESect-16.9 P-11ESect-16.9 P-12ESect-16.9 P-13ESect-16.9 P-14ESect-16.9 P-17ESect-16.9 P-18ESect-16.9 P-19ESect-16.9 P-20ESect-16.9 P-23ESect-16.9 P-24ESect-16.9 P-25ESect-16.9 P-26ESect-16.9 P-27ESect-16.9 P-28ESect-16.9 P-29ESect-16.9 P-30ESect-16.9 P-31ESect-16.9 P-32ECh-16 P-1RCCCh-16 P-2RCCCh-16 P-3RCCCh-16 P-4RCCCh-16 P-5RCCCh-16 P-6RCCCh-16 P-7RCCCh-16 P-8RCCCh-16 P-9RCCCh-16 P-10RCCCh-16 P-11RCCCh-16 P-12RCCCh-16 P-13RCCCh-16 P-14RCCCh-16 P-15RCCCh-16 P-16RCCCh-16 P-1RQCh-16 P-2RQCh-16 P-3RQCh-16 P-4RQCh-16 P-5RQCh-16 P-6RQCh-16 P-7RQCh-16 P-8RQCh-16 P-9RQCh-16 P-10RQCh-16 P-11RQCh-16 P-12RQCh-16 P-13RQCh-16 P-1RECh-16 P-2RECh-16 P-3RECh-16 P-4RECh-16 P-5RECh-16 P-6RECh-16 P-7RECh-16 P-8RECh-16 P-9RECh-16 P-10RECh-16 P-11RECh-16 P-12RECh-16 P-13RECh-16 P-14RECh-16 P-15RECh-16 P-16RECh-16 P-17RECh-16 P-18RECh-16 P-19RECh-16 P-20RECh-16 P-21RECh-16 P-22RECh-16 P-23RECh-16 P-24RECh-16 P-25RECh-16 P-27RECh-16 P-28RECh-16 P-29RECh-16 P-30RECh-16 P-31RECh-16 P-32RECh-16 P-33RECh-16 P-34RECh-16 P-35RECh-16 P-36RECh-16 P-37RECh-16 P-38RECh-16 P-39RECh-16 P-40RECh-16 P-41RECh-16 P-1PCh-16 P-2PCh-16 P-3PCh-16 P-5PCh-16 P-6P

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