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What is a hydrocarbon? What is the difference between a saturated hydrocarbon and an unsaturated hydrocarbon? Distinguish between normal and branched hydrocarbons. What is an alkane? What is a cyclic alkane? What are the two general formulas for alkanes? What is the hybridization of carbon atoms in alkanes? What are the bond angles in alkanes? Why are cyclopropane and cyclobutane so reactive? The normal (unbranched) hydrocarbons are often referred to as straight-chain hydrocarbons. What does this name refer to? Does it mean that the carbon atoms in a straight-chain hydrocarbon really have a linear arrangement? Explain. In the shorthand notation for cyclic alkanes, the hydrogens are usually omitted. How do you determine the number of hydrogens bonded to each carbon in a ring structure?

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 21, Problem 1RQ
Textbook Problem
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What is a hydrocarbon? What is the difference between a saturated hydrocarbon and an unsaturated hydrocarbon? Distinguish between normal and branched hydrocarbons. What is an alkane? What is a cyclic alkane? What are the two general formulas for alkanes? What is the hybridization of carbon atoms in alkanes? What are the bond angles in alkanes? Why are cyclopropane and cyclobutane so reactive?

The normal (unbranched) hydrocarbons are often referred to as straight-chain hydrocarbons. What does this name refer to? Does it mean that the carbon atoms in a straight-chain hydrocarbon really have a linear arrangement? Explain. In the shorthand notation for cyclic alkanes, the hydrogens are usually omitted. How do you determine the number of hydrogens bonded to each carbon in a ring structure?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions related to hydrocarbons are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

Answer to Problem 1RQ

To explain: The answers of various questions related to hydrocarbons.

Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds.

The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be straight chain, branched chain or cyclic molecules.

The difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is that saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bonds between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double or triple bonds between the atoms.

In normal straight-chain hydrocarbons, carbon atoms form long chains while in branched hydrocarbons, hydrogen attached to carbon is substituted by any other group.

When the hydrocarbons contain only single bonds, then they are known as alkanes. The general formula of alkanes is CnH2n+2 . Alkanes having one or more ring of carbon atoms is present in their structure are known as cycloalkanes. Their general formula is CnH2n .

The hybridization of carbon atom in alkanes is sp3 .

All the carbon atoms in alkanes are joined by single bonds, thus its hybridization is sp3 .

In alkanes, each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms a single bond with a carbon atom. The bonding around each carbon is tetrahedral, therefore all the bond angles are 109.5°

The carbon atoms in cyclopropane form an equilateral triangle with a bond angle of 60° .

The carbon atoms in cyclobutane form an equilateral square and the bond angle is 88° due to angle strain. Cyclobutane and cyclopropane are reactive because the sp3 hybridized orbitals do not overlap head to head like in alkanes. Therefore, the C-C bonds are weak making them reactive.

Straight chain hydrocarbon does not mean that they have a linear arrangement

The number of hydrogens in cyclic alkanes is calculated by its general formula.

In short hand notation for cyclic alkanes, the hydrogens are usually omitted. They can be determined by the general formula of cyclic alkanes. Their general formula is CnH2n .

For example, in butane, four carbon atoms are present.

The value of n=4 .

Therefore, the number of hydrogen atoms =2×4=8.

Hydrocarbons are simplest organic compounds and the hybridization of carbon atom in alkanes is sp3 .

Explanation of Solution

To explain: The answers of various questions related to hydrocarbons.

Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds.

The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be straight chain, branched chain or cyclic molecules.

The difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is that saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bonds between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double or triple bonds between the atoms.

In normal straight-chain hydrocarbons, carbon atoms form long chains while in branched hydrocarbons, hydrogen attached to carbon is substituted by any other group.

When the hydrocarbons contain only single bonds, then they are known as alkanes. The general formula of alkanes is CnH2n+2 . Alkanes having one or more ring of carbon atoms is present in their structure are known as cycloalkanes. Their general formula is CnH2n .

The hybridization of carbon atom in alkanes is sp3 .

All the carbon atoms in alkanes are joined by single bonds, thus its hybridization is sp3 .

In alkanes, each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms a single bond with a carbon atom. The bonding around each carbon is tetrahedral, therefore all the bond angles are 109.5°

The carbon atoms in cyclopropane form an equilateral triangle with a bond angle of 60° .

The carbon atoms in cyclobutane form an equilateral square and the bond angle is 88° due to angle strain. Cyclobutane and cyclopropane are reactive because the sp3 hybridized orbitals do not overlap head to head like in alkanes. Therefore, the C-C bonds are weak making them reactive.

Straight chain hydrocarbon does not mean that they have a linear arrangement

The number of hydrogens in cyclic alkanes is calculated by its general formula.

In short hand notation for cyclic alkanes, the hydrogens are usually omitted. They can be determined by the general formula of cyclic alkanes. Their general formula is CnH2n .

For example, in butane, four carbon atoms are present.

The value of n=4 .

Therefore, the number of hydrogen atoms =2×4=8.

Conclusion

Hydrocarbons are simplest organic compounds and the hybridization of carbon atom in alkanes is sp3 .

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Chapter 21 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 21 - What are carbohydrates, and what are the monomers...Ch. 21 - Describe the structural differences between DNA...Ch. 21 - A confused student was doing an isomer problem and...Ch. 21 - For the following formulas, what types of...Ch. 21 - What is wrong with the following names? Give the...Ch. 21 - The following organic compounds cannot exist. Why?...Ch. 21 - If you had a group of hydrocarbons, what...Ch. 21 - Which of the functional groups in Table 21-4 can...Ch. 21 - A polypeptide is also called a polyamide. Nylon is...Ch. 21 - Give an example reaction that would yield the...Ch. 21 - Give an example reaction that would yield the...Ch. 21 - What is polystyrene? The following processes...Ch. 21 - Answer the following questions regarding the...Ch. 21 - In Section 21-6, three important classes of...Ch. 21 - Draw the five structural isomers of hexane...Ch. 21 - Name the structural isomers in Exercise 13.Ch. 21 - Draw all the structural isomers for C8H18 that...Ch. 21 - Draw all the structural isomers for C8H18 that...Ch. 21 - Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 21 - Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 21 - Draw the structural formula for each of the...Ch. 21 - Draw the structure for...Ch. 21 - Name each of the following. a. b. c. d.Ch. 21 - Name each of the following cyclic alkanes, and...Ch. 21 - Give two examples of saturated hydrocarbons. How...Ch. 21 - Draw the structures for two examples of...Ch. 21 - Name each of the following alkenes. a. CH2 = CH ...Ch. 21 - Name each of the following alkenes or alkynes. a....Ch. 21 - Give the structure for each of the following. a....Ch. 21 - Give the structure for each of the following. a....Ch. 21 - Give the structure of each of the following...Ch. 21 - Cumene is the starting material for the industrial...Ch. 21 - Name each of the following. a. b. CH3CH2CH2CCl3 c....Ch. 21 - Name each of the following compounds. a. b. c. d....Ch. 21 - There is only one compound that is named...Ch. 21 - Consider the following four structures. a. Which...Ch. 21 - Which of the compounds in Exercises 25 and 27...Ch. 21 - Which of the compounds in Exercises 26 and 28...Ch. 21 - Draw all the structural isomers of C5H10. Ignore...Ch. 21 - Which of the structural isomers in Exercise 37...Ch. 21 - Draw all the structural and geometrical (cistrans)...Ch. 21 - Draw all the structural and geometrical (cistrans)...Ch. 21 - Draw all structural and geometrical (cistrans)...Ch. 21 - Cistrans isomerism is also possible in molecules...Ch. 21 - Draw the following. a. cis-2-hexene b....Ch. 21 - Name the following compounds. a. b. c.Ch. 21 - If one hydrogen in a hydrocarbon is replaced by a...Ch. 21 - There are three isomers of dichlorobenzene, one of...Ch. 21 - Identify each of the following compounds as a...Ch. 21 - Identify the functional groups present in the...Ch. 21 - Mimosine is a natural product found in large...Ch. 21 - Minoxidil (C9H15N5O) is a compound produced by...Ch. 21 - For each of the following alcohols, give the...Ch. 21 - Draw structural formulas for each of the following...Ch. 21 - Name all the alcohols that have the formula...Ch. 21 - Name all the aldehydes and ketones that have the...Ch. 21 - Name the following compounds. a. b. c.Ch. 21 - Draw the structural formula for each of the...Ch. 21 - Name the following compounds. a. b. c. HCOOHCh. 21 - Draw a structural formula for each of the...Ch. 21 - Which of the following statements is(are) false?...Ch. 21 - Draw the isomer(s) specified. There may be more...Ch. 21 - Complete the following reactions. a. b. c. d.Ch. 21 - Reagents such as HCl, HBr, and HOH (H2O) can add...Ch. 21 - When toluene (C6H5CH3) reacts with chlorine gas in...Ch. 21 - Why is it preferable to produce chloroethane by...Ch. 21 - Using appropriate reactants, alcohols can be...Ch. 21 - Oxidation of an aldehyde yields a carboxylic acid:...Ch. 21 - How would you synthesize each of the following? a....Ch. 21 - What tests could you perform to distinguish...Ch. 21 - How would you synthesize the following esters? a....Ch. 21 - Complete the following reactions. a. CH3CO2H +...Ch. 21 - Kel-F is a polymer with the structure What is the...Ch. 21 - What monomer(s) must be used to produce the...Ch. 21 - Super glue contains methyl cyanoacrylate, which...Ch. 21 - Isoprene is the repeating unit in natural rubber....Ch. 21 - Kevlar, used in bulletproof vests, is made by the...Ch. 21 - The polyester formed from lactic acid, is used for...Ch. 21 - Polyimides are polymers that are tough and stable...Ch. 21 - The Amoco Chemical Company has successfully raced...Ch. 21 - Polystyrene can be made more rigid by...Ch. 21 - Polyesters containing double bonds are often...Ch. 21 - Which of the following polymers would be stronger...Ch. 21 - Poly(lauryl methacrylate) is used as an additive...Ch. 21 - Which of the amino acids in Fig. 21-18 contain the...Ch. 21 - When pure crystalline amino acids are heated,...Ch. 21 - Aspartame, the artificial sweetener marketed under...Ch. 21 - Glutathione, a tripeptide found in virtually all...Ch. 21 - Draw the structures of the two dipeptides that can...Ch. 21 - Draw the structures of the tripeptides glyalaser...Ch. 21 - Write the sequence of all possible tetrapeptides...Ch. 21 - How many different pentapeptides can be formed...Ch. 21 - Give an example of amino acids that could give...Ch. 21 - What types of interactions can occur between the...Ch. 21 - Oxygen is carried from the lungs to tissues by the...Ch. 21 - Over 100 different kinds of mutant hemoglobin...Ch. 21 - Draw cyclic structures for D-ribose and D-mannose.Ch. 21 - Indicate the chiral carbon atoms found in the...Ch. 21 - In addition to using numerical prefixes in the...Ch. 21 - Glucose can occur in three forms: two cyclic forms...Ch. 21 - What are the structural differences between - and...Ch. 21 - Cows can digest cellulose, but humans cant. Why...Ch. 21 - Which of the amino acids in Fig. 21-18 contain...Ch. 21 - Why is glycine not optically active?Ch. 21 - Which of the noncyclic isomers of...Ch. 21 - How many chiral carbon atoms does the following...Ch. 21 - Part of a certain DNA sequence is GGTCTATAC. What...Ch. 21 - The codons (words) in DNA (that specify which...Ch. 21 - Which base will hydrogen-bond with uracil within...Ch. 21 - Tautomers are molecules that differ in the...Ch. 21 - The base sequences in mRNA that code for certain...Ch. 21 - The change of a single base in the DNA sequence...Ch. 21 - Draw the following incorrectly named compounds and...Ch. 21 - In the presence of light, chlorine can substitute...Ch. 21 - Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are...Ch. 21 - Consider the following five compounds. a....Ch. 21 - The two isomers having the formula C2H6O boil at...Ch. 21 - Ignoring ring compounds, which isomer of C2H4O2...Ch. 21 - Explain why methyl alcohol is soluble in water in...Ch. 21 - Is octanoic acid more soluble in 1 M HCl, 1 M...Ch. 21 - Consider the compounds butanoic acid, pentanal,...Ch. 21 - A compound containing only carbon and hydrogen is...Ch. 21 - Three different organic compounds have the formula...Ch. 21 - Consider the following polymer: Is this polymer a...Ch. 21 - Nylon is named according to the number of C atoms...Ch. 21 - The polymer nitrile is a copolymer made from...Ch. 21 - Polyaramid is a term applied to polyamides...Ch. 21 - When acrylic polymers are burned, toxic fumes are...Ch. 21 - Ethylene oxide, is an important industrial...Ch. 21 - Another way of producing highly crosslinked...Ch. 21 - Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is commonly used as a...Ch. 21 - a. 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